## 2013 |

## Journal Articles |

Olmos, Pablo M; Murillo-Fuentes, Juan Jose ; Perez-Cruz, Fernando Tree-Structure Expectation Propagation for LDPC Decoding Over the BEC Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 59 (6), pp. 3354–3377, 2013, ISSN: 0018-9448. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Algorithm design and analysis, Approximation algorithms, Approximation methods, BEC, belief propagation, Belief-propagation (BP), binary erasure channel, Complexity theory, decode low-density parity-check codes, Decoding, discrete memoryless channels, expectation propagation, finite-length analysis, LDPC codes, LDPC decoding, parity check codes, peeling-type algorithm, Probability density function, random graph evolution, Tanner graph, tree-structure expectation propagation @article{Olmos2013b, title = {Tree-Structure Expectation Propagation for LDPC Decoding Over the BEC}, author = {Olmos, Pablo M. and Murillo-Fuentes, Juan Jose and Perez-Cruz, Fernando}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6451276}, issn = {0018-9448}, year = {2013}, date = {2013-01-01}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Information Theory}, volume = {59}, number = {6}, pages = {3354--3377}, abstract = {We present the tree-structure expectation propagation (Tree-EP) algorithm to decode low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over discrete memoryless channels (DMCs). Expectation propagation generalizes belief propagation (BP) in two ways. First, it can be used with any exponential family distribution over the cliques in the graph. Second, it can impose additional constraints on the marginal distributions. We use this second property to impose pairwise marginal constraints over pairs of variables connected to a check node of the LDPC code's Tanner graph. Thanks to these additional constraints, the Tree-EP marginal estimates for each variable in the graph are more accurate than those provided by BP. We also reformulate the Tree-EP algorithm for the binary erasure channel (BEC) as a peeling-type algorithm (TEP) and we show that the algorithm has the same computational complexity as BP and it decodes a higher fraction of errors. We describe the TEP decoding process by a set of differential equations that represents the expected residual graph evolution as a function of the code parameters. The solution of these equations is used to predict the TEP decoder performance in both the asymptotic regime and the finite-length regimes over the BEC. While the asymptotic threshold of the TEP decoder is the same as the BP decoder for regular and optimized codes, we propose a scaling law for finite-length LDPC codes, which accurately approximates the TEP improved performance and facilitates its optimization.}, keywords = {Algorithm design and analysis, Approximation algorithms, Approximation methods, BEC, belief propagation, Belief-propagation (BP), binary erasure channel, Complexity theory, decode low-density parity-check codes, Decoding, discrete memoryless channels, expectation propagation, finite-length analysis, LDPC codes, LDPC decoding, parity check codes, peeling-type algorithm, Probability density function, random graph evolution, Tanner graph, tree-structure expectation propagation}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } We present the tree-structure expectation propagation (Tree-EP) algorithm to decode low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over discrete memoryless channels (DMCs). Expectation propagation generalizes belief propagation (BP) in two ways. First, it can be used with any exponential family distribution over the cliques in the graph. Second, it can impose additional constraints on the marginal distributions. We use this second property to impose pairwise marginal constraints over pairs of variables connected to a check node of the LDPC code's Tanner graph. Thanks to these additional constraints, the Tree-EP marginal estimates for each variable in the graph are more accurate than those provided by BP. We also reformulate the Tree-EP algorithm for the binary erasure channel (BEC) as a peeling-type algorithm (TEP) and we show that the algorithm has the same computational complexity as BP and it decodes a higher fraction of errors. We describe the TEP decoding process by a set of differential equations that represents the expected residual graph evolution as a function of the code parameters. The solution of these equations is used to predict the TEP decoder performance in both the asymptotic regime and the finite-length regimes over the BEC. While the asymptotic threshold of the TEP decoder is the same as the BP decoder for regular and optimized codes, we propose a scaling law for finite-length LDPC codes, which accurately approximates the TEP improved performance and facilitates its optimization. |

Salamanca, Luis ; Olmos, Pablo M; Perez-Cruz, Fernando ; Murillo-Fuentes, Juan Jose Tree-Structured Expectation Propagation for LDPC Decoding over BMS Channels Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Communications, 61 (10), pp. 4086–4095, 2013, ISSN: 0090-6778. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Approximation algorithms, Approximation methods, BEC, belief propagation, binary erasure channel, binary memoryless symmetric channels, BMS channels, Channel Coding, Complexity theory, convolutional codes, convolutional low-density parity-check codes, Decoding, decoding block, expectation propagation, finite-length codes, LDPC decoding, message-passing algorithm, parity check codes, Probability density function, sparse linear codes, TEP algorithm, tree-structured expectation propagation, trees (mathematics), Vegetation @article{Salamanca2013a, title = {Tree-Structured Expectation Propagation for LDPC Decoding over BMS Channels}, author = {Salamanca, Luis and Olmos, Pablo M. and Perez-Cruz, Fernando and Murillo-Fuentes, Juan Jose}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6587624}, issn = {0090-6778}, year = {2013}, date = {2013-01-01}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Communications}, volume = {61}, number = {10}, pages = {4086--4095}, abstract = {In this paper, we put forward the tree-structured expectation propagation (TEP) algorithm for decoding block and convolutional low-density parity-check codes over any binary channel. We have already shown that TEP improves belief propagation (BP) over the binary erasure channel (BEC) by imposing marginal constraints over a set of pairs of variables that form a tree or a forest. The TEP decoder is a message-passing algorithm that sequentially builds a tree/forest of erased variables to capture additional information disregarded by the standard BP decoder, which leads to a noticeable reduction of the error rate for finite-length codes. In this paper, we show how the TEP can be extended to any channel, specifically to binary memoryless symmetric (BMS) channels. We particularly focus on how the TEP algorithm can be adapted for any channel model and, more importantly, how to choose the tree/forest to keep the gains observed for block and convolutional LDPC codes over the BEC.}, keywords = {Approximation algorithms, Approximation methods, BEC, belief propagation, binary erasure channel, binary memoryless symmetric channels, BMS channels, Channel Coding, Complexity theory, convolutional codes, convolutional low-density parity-check codes, Decoding, decoding block, expectation propagation, finite-length codes, LDPC decoding, message-passing algorithm, parity check codes, Probability density function, sparse linear codes, TEP algorithm, tree-structured expectation propagation, trees (mathematics), Vegetation}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } In this paper, we put forward the tree-structured expectation propagation (TEP) algorithm for decoding block and convolutional low-density parity-check codes over any binary channel. We have already shown that TEP improves belief propagation (BP) over the binary erasure channel (BEC) by imposing marginal constraints over a set of pairs of variables that form a tree or a forest. The TEP decoder is a message-passing algorithm that sequentially builds a tree/forest of erased variables to capture additional information disregarded by the standard BP decoder, which leads to a noticeable reduction of the error rate for finite-length codes. In this paper, we show how the TEP can be extended to any channel, specifically to binary memoryless symmetric (BMS) channels. We particularly focus on how the TEP algorithm can be adapted for any channel model and, more importantly, how to choose the tree/forest to keep the gains observed for block and convolutional LDPC codes over the BEC. |

## 2010 |

## Journal Articles |

Fresia, Maria ; Perez-Cruz, Fernando ; Poor, Vincent H; Verdu, Sergio Joint Source and Channel Coding Journal Article IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 27 (6), pp. 104–113, 2010, ISSN: 1053-5888. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: belief propagation, Channel Coding, combined source-channel coding, Decoding, Encoding, graphical model, Hidden Markov models, Iterative decoding, joint source channel coding, JSC coding, LDPC code, low density parity check code, Markov processes, parity check codes, Slepian-Wolf problem, variable length codes @article{Fresia2010, title = {Joint Source and Channel Coding}, author = {Fresia, Maria and Perez-Cruz, Fernando and Poor, H. Vincent and Verdu, Sergio}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=5563107}, issn = {1053-5888}, year = {2010}, date = {2010-01-01}, journal = {IEEE Signal Processing Magazine}, volume = {27}, number = {6}, pages = {104--113}, abstract = {The objectives of this article are two-fold: First, to present the problem of joint source and channel (JSC) coding from a graphical model perspective and second, to propose a structure that uses a new graphical model for jointly encoding and decoding a redundant source. In the first part of the article, relevant contributions to JSC coding, ranging from the Slepian-Wolf problem to joint decoding of variable length codes with state-of-the-art source codes, are reviewed and summarized. In the second part, a double low-density parity-check (LDPC) code for JSC coding is proposed. The double LDPC code can be decoded as a single bipartite graph using standard belief propagation (BP) and its limiting performance is analyzed by using extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) chart approximations.}, keywords = {belief propagation, Channel Coding, combined source-channel coding, Decoding, Encoding, graphical model, Hidden Markov models, Iterative decoding, joint source channel coding, JSC coding, LDPC code, low density parity check code, Markov processes, parity check codes, Slepian-Wolf problem, variable length codes}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } The objectives of this article are two-fold: First, to present the problem of joint source and channel (JSC) coding from a graphical model perspective and second, to propose a structure that uses a new graphical model for jointly encoding and decoding a redundant source. In the first part of the article, relevant contributions to JSC coding, ranging from the Slepian-Wolf problem to joint decoding of variable length codes with state-of-the-art source codes, are reviewed and summarized. In the second part, a double low-density parity-check (LDPC) code for JSC coding is proposed. The double LDPC code can be decoded as a single bipartite graph using standard belief propagation (BP) and its limiting performance is analyzed by using extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) chart approximations. |

## Inproceedings |

Olmos, Pablo M; Murillo-Fuentes, Juan Jose ; Perez-Cruz, Fernando Tree-Structure Expectation Propagation for Decoding LDPC Codes over Binary Erasure Channels Inproceedings 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, pp. 799–803, IEEE, Austin, TX, 2010, ISBN: 978-1-4244-7892-7. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: belief propagation, binary erasure channels, Bipartite graph, BP decoder, Capacity planning, Channel Coding, codeword, computational complexity, Decoding, Finishing, graph theory, H infinity control, LDPC code decoding, LDPC Tanner graph, Maxwell decoder, parity check codes, Performance analysis, tree structure expectation propagation, trees (mathematics), Upper bound @inproceedings{Olmos2010, title = {Tree-Structure Expectation Propagation for Decoding LDPC Codes over Binary Erasure Channels}, author = {Olmos, Pablo M. and Murillo-Fuentes, Juan Jose and Perez-Cruz, Fernando}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=5513636}, isbn = {978-1-4244-7892-7}, year = {2010}, date = {2010-01-01}, booktitle = {2010 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory}, pages = {799--803}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Austin, TX}, abstract = {Expectation Propagation is a generalization to Belief Propagation (BP) in two ways. First, it can be used with any exponential family distribution over the cliques in the graph. Second, it can impose additional constraints on the marginal distributions. We use this second property to impose pair-wise marginal distribution constraints in some check nodes of the LDPC Tanner graph. These additional constraints allow decoding the received codeword when the BP decoder gets stuck. In this paper, we first present the new decoding algorithm, whose complexity is identical to the BP decoder, and we then prove that it is able to decode codewords with a larger fraction of erasures, as the block size tends to infinity. The proposed algorithm can be also understood as a simplification of the Maxwell decoder, but without its computational complexity. We also illustrate that the new algorithm outperforms the BP decoder for finite block-size codes.}, keywords = {belief propagation, binary erasure channels, Bipartite graph, BP decoder, Capacity planning, Channel Coding, codeword, computational complexity, Decoding, Finishing, graph theory, H infinity control, LDPC code decoding, LDPC Tanner graph, Maxwell decoder, parity check codes, Performance analysis, tree structure expectation propagation, trees (mathematics), Upper bound}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } Expectation Propagation is a generalization to Belief Propagation (BP) in two ways. First, it can be used with any exponential family distribution over the cliques in the graph. Second, it can impose additional constraints on the marginal distributions. We use this second property to impose pair-wise marginal distribution constraints in some check nodes of the LDPC Tanner graph. These additional constraints allow decoding the received codeword when the BP decoder gets stuck. In this paper, we first present the new decoding algorithm, whose complexity is identical to the BP decoder, and we then prove that it is able to decode codewords with a larger fraction of erasures, as the block size tends to infinity. The proposed algorithm can be also understood as a simplification of the Maxwell decoder, but without its computational complexity. We also illustrate that the new algorithm outperforms the BP decoder for finite block-size codes. |