## 2014 |

## Inproceedings |

Koch, Tobias On the Dither-Quantized Gaussian Channel at Low SNR Inproceedings 2014 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, pp. 186–190, IEEE, Honolulu, 2014, ISBN: 978-1-4799-5186-4. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Additive noise, channel capacity, dither quantized Gaussian channel, Entropy, Gaussian channels, low signal-to-noise-ratio, low-SNR asymptotic capacity, peak power constraint, peak-and-average-power-limited Gaussian channel, Quantization (signal), Signal to noise ratio @inproceedings{Koch2014, title = {On the Dither-Quantized Gaussian Channel at Low SNR}, author = {Tobias Koch}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6874820}, isbn = {978-1-4799-5186-4}, year = {2014}, date = {2014-01-01}, booktitle = {2014 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory}, pages = {186--190}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Honolulu}, abstract = {We study the capacity of the peak-and-average-power-limited Gaussian channel when its output is quantized using a dithered, infinite-level, uniform quantizer of step size $Delta$. We focus on the low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) regime, where communication at low spectral efficiencies takes place. We show that, when the peak-power constraint is absent, the low-SNR asymptotic capacity is equal to that of the unquantized channel irrespective of $Delta$. We further derive an expression for the low-SNR asymptotic capacity for finite peak-to-average-power ratios and evaluate it in the low- and high-resolution limit. We demonstrate that, in this case, the low-SNR asymptotic capacity converges to that of the unquantized channel when $Delta$ tends to zero, and it tends to zero when $Delta$ tends to infinity.}, keywords = {Additive noise, channel capacity, dither quantized Gaussian channel, Entropy, Gaussian channels, low signal-to-noise-ratio, low-SNR asymptotic capacity, peak power constraint, peak-and-average-power-limited Gaussian channel, Quantization (signal), Signal to noise ratio}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } We study the capacity of the peak-and-average-power-limited Gaussian channel when its output is quantized using a dithered, infinite-level, uniform quantizer of step size $Delta$. We focus on the low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) regime, where communication at low spectral efficiencies takes place. We show that, when the peak-power constraint is absent, the low-SNR asymptotic capacity is equal to that of the unquantized channel irrespective of $Delta$. We further derive an expression for the low-SNR asymptotic capacity for finite peak-to-average-power ratios and evaluate it in the low- and high-resolution limit. We demonstrate that, in this case, the low-SNR asymptotic capacity converges to that of the unquantized channel when $Delta$ tends to zero, and it tends to zero when $Delta$ tends to infinity. |

Cespedes, Javier; Olmos, Pablo M; Sanchez-Fernandez, Matilde; Perez-Cruz, Fernando Improved Performance of LDPC-Coded MIMO Systems with EP-based Soft-Decisions Inproceedings 2014 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, pp. 1997–2001, IEEE, Honolulu, 2014, ISBN: 978-1-4799-5186-4. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Approximation algorithms, Approximation methods, approximation theory, Channel Coding, channel decoder, communication complexity, complexity, Complexity theory, Detectors, encoding scheme, EP soft bit probability, EP-based soft decision, error statistics, expectation propagation, expectation-maximisation algorithm, expectation-propagation algorithm, Gaussian approximation, Gaussian channels, LDPC, LDPC coded MIMO system, Low Complexity receiver, MIMO, MIMO communication, MIMO communication systems, MIMO receiver, modern communication system, multiple input multiple output, parity check codes, per-antenna soft bit probability, posterior marginalization problem, posterior probability computation, QAM constellation, Quadrature amplitude modulation, radio receivers, signaling, spectral analysis, spectral efficiency maximization, symbol detection, telecommunication signalling, Vectors @inproceedings{Cespedes2014b, title = {Improved Performance of LDPC-Coded MIMO Systems with EP-based Soft-Decisions}, author = {Javier Cespedes and Pablo M Olmos and Matilde Sanchez-Fernandez and Fernando Perez-Cruz}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6875183}, isbn = {978-1-4799-5186-4}, year = {2014}, date = {2014-01-01}, booktitle = {2014 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory}, pages = {1997--2001}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Honolulu}, abstract = {Modern communications systems use efficient encoding schemes, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and high-order QAM constellations for maximizing spectral efficiency. However, as the dimensions of the system grow, the design of efficient and low-complexity MIMO receivers possesses technical challenges. Symbol detection can no longer rely on conventional approaches for posterior probability computation due to complexity. Marginalization of this posterior to obtain per-antenna soft-bit probabilities to be fed to a channel decoder is computationally challenging when realistic signaling is used. In this work, we propose to use Expectation Propagation (EP) algorithm to provide an accurate low-complexity Gaussian approximation to the posterior, easily solving the posterior marginalization problem. EP soft-bit probabilities are used in an LDPC-coded MIMO system, achieving outstanding performance improvement compared to similar approaches in the literature for low-complexity LDPC MIMO decoding.}, keywords = {Approximation algorithms, Approximation methods, approximation theory, Channel Coding, channel decoder, communication complexity, complexity, Complexity theory, Detectors, encoding scheme, EP soft bit probability, EP-based soft decision, error statistics, expectation propagation, expectation-maximisation algorithm, expectation-propagation algorithm, Gaussian approximation, Gaussian channels, LDPC, LDPC coded MIMO system, Low Complexity receiver, MIMO, MIMO communication, MIMO communication systems, MIMO receiver, modern communication system, multiple input multiple output, parity check codes, per-antenna soft bit probability, posterior marginalization problem, posterior probability computation, QAM constellation, Quadrature amplitude modulation, radio receivers, signaling, spectral analysis, spectral efficiency maximization, symbol detection, telecommunication signalling, Vectors}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } Modern communications systems use efficient encoding schemes, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and high-order QAM constellations for maximizing spectral efficiency. However, as the dimensions of the system grow, the design of efficient and low-complexity MIMO receivers possesses technical challenges. Symbol detection can no longer rely on conventional approaches for posterior probability computation due to complexity. Marginalization of this posterior to obtain per-antenna soft-bit probabilities to be fed to a channel decoder is computationally challenging when realistic signaling is used. In this work, we propose to use Expectation Propagation (EP) algorithm to provide an accurate low-complexity Gaussian approximation to the posterior, easily solving the posterior marginalization problem. EP soft-bit probabilities are used in an LDPC-coded MIMO system, achieving outstanding performance improvement compared to similar approaches in the literature for low-complexity LDPC MIMO decoding. |

## 2013 |

## Journal Articles |

Koch, Tobias; Lapidoth, Amos At Low SNR, Asymmetric Quantizers are Better Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 59 (9), pp. 5421–5445, 2013, ISSN: 0018-9448. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: 1-bit quantizer, asymmetric signaling constellation, asymmetric threshold quantizers, asymptotic power loss, Capacity per unit energy, channel capacity, discrete-time Gaussian channel, flash-signaling input distribution, Gaussian channel, Gaussian channels, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), quantisation (signal), quantization, Rayleigh channels, Rayleigh-fading channel, signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, spectral efficiency @article{Koch2013, title = {At Low SNR, Asymmetric Quantizers are Better}, author = {Tobias Koch and Amos Lapidoth}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6545291}, issn = {0018-9448}, year = {2013}, date = {2013-01-01}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Information Theory}, volume = {59}, number = {9}, pages = {5421--5445}, abstract = {We study the capacity of the discrete-time Gaussian channel when its output is quantized with a 1-bit quantizer. We focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, where communication at very low spectral efficiencies takes place. In this regime, a symmetric threshold quantizer is known to reduce channel capacity by a factor of 2/$pi$, i.e., to cause an asymptotic power loss of approximately 2 dB. Here, it is shown that this power loss can be avoided by using asymmetric threshold quantizers and asymmetric signaling constellations. To avoid this power loss, flash-signaling input distributions are essential. Consequently, 1-bit output quantization of the Gaussian channel reduces spectral efficiency. Threshold quantizers are not only asymptotically optimal: at every fixed SNR, a threshold quantizer maximizes capacity among all 1-bit output quantizers. The picture changes on the Rayleigh-fading channel. In the noncoherent case, a 1-bit output quantizer causes an unavoidable low-SNR asymptotic power loss. In the coherent case, however, this power loss is avoidable provided that we allow the quantizer to depend on the fading level.}, keywords = {1-bit quantizer, asymmetric signaling constellation, asymmetric threshold quantizers, asymptotic power loss, Capacity per unit energy, channel capacity, discrete-time Gaussian channel, flash-signaling input distribution, Gaussian channel, Gaussian channels, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), quantisation (signal), quantization, Rayleigh channels, Rayleigh-fading channel, signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, spectral efficiency}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } We study the capacity of the discrete-time Gaussian channel when its output is quantized with a 1-bit quantizer. We focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, where communication at very low spectral efficiencies takes place. In this regime, a symmetric threshold quantizer is known to reduce channel capacity by a factor of 2/$pi$, i.e., to cause an asymptotic power loss of approximately 2 dB. Here, it is shown that this power loss can be avoided by using asymmetric threshold quantizers and asymmetric signaling constellations. To avoid this power loss, flash-signaling input distributions are essential. Consequently, 1-bit output quantization of the Gaussian channel reduces spectral efficiency. Threshold quantizers are not only asymptotically optimal: at every fixed SNR, a threshold quantizer maximizes capacity among all 1-bit output quantizers. The picture changes on the Rayleigh-fading channel. In the noncoherent case, a 1-bit output quantizer causes an unavoidable low-SNR asymptotic power loss. In the coherent case, however, this power loss is avoidable provided that we allow the quantizer to depend on the fading level. |

Bravo-Santos, Ángel M Polar Codes for Gaussian Degraded Relay Channels Journal Article IEEE Communications Letters, 17 (2), pp. 365–368, 2013, ISSN: 1089-7798. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: channel capacity, Channel Coding, Decoding, Encoding, Gaussian channels, Gaussian degraded relay channel, Gaussian noise, Gaussian-degraded relay channels, log-likelihood expression, Markov coding, Noise, parity check codes, polar code detector, polar codes, relay-destination link, Relays, Vectors @article{Bravo-Santos2013, title = {Polar Codes for Gaussian Degraded Relay Channels}, author = {Ángel M Bravo-Santos}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6412681}, issn = {1089-7798}, year = {2013}, date = {2013-01-01}, journal = {IEEE Communications Letters}, volume = {17}, number = {2}, pages = {365--368}, publisher = {IEEE}, abstract = {In this paper we apply polar codes for the Gaussian degraded relay channel. We study the conditions to be satisfied by the codes and provide an efficient method for constructing them. The relay-destination link is special because the noise is the sum of two components: the Gaussian noise and the signals from the source. We study this link and provide the log-likelihood expression to be used by the polar code detector. We perform simulations of the channel and the results show that polar codes of high rate and large codeword length are closer to the theoretical limit than other good codes.}, keywords = {channel capacity, Channel Coding, Decoding, Encoding, Gaussian channels, Gaussian degraded relay channel, Gaussian noise, Gaussian-degraded relay channels, log-likelihood expression, Markov coding, Noise, parity check codes, polar code detector, polar codes, relay-destination link, Relays, Vectors}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } In this paper we apply polar codes for the Gaussian degraded relay channel. We study the conditions to be satisfied by the codes and provide an efficient method for constructing them. The relay-destination link is special because the noise is the sum of two components: the Gaussian noise and the signals from the source. We study this link and provide the log-likelihood expression to be used by the polar code detector. We perform simulations of the channel and the results show that polar codes of high rate and large codeword length are closer to the theoretical limit than other good codes. |

## 2012 |

## Inproceedings |

Taborda, Camilo G; Perez-Cruz, Fernando Mutual Information and Relative Entropy over the Binomial and Negative Binomial Channels Inproceedings 2012 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory Proceedings, pp. 696–700, IEEE, Cambridge, MA, 2012, ISSN: 2157-8095. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Channel estimation, conditional mean estimation, Entropy, Estimation, estimation theoretical quantity, estimation theory, Gaussian channel, Gaussian channels, information theory concept, loss function, mean square error methods, Mutual information, negative binomial channel, Poisson channel, Random variables, relative entropy @inproceedings{Taborda2012a, title = {Mutual Information and Relative Entropy over the Binomial and Negative Binomial Channels}, author = {Camilo G Taborda and Fernando Perez-Cruz}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6284304}, issn = {2157-8095}, year = {2012}, date = {2012-01-01}, booktitle = {2012 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory Proceedings}, pages = {696--700}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Cambridge, MA}, abstract = {We study the relation of the mutual information and relative entropy over the Binomial and Negative Binomial channels with estimation theoretical quantities, in which we extend already known results for Gaussian and Poisson channels. We establish general expressions for these information theory concepts with a direct connection with estimation theory through the conditional mean estimation and a particular loss function.}, keywords = {Channel estimation, conditional mean estimation, Entropy, Estimation, estimation theoretical quantity, estimation theory, Gaussian channel, Gaussian channels, information theory concept, loss function, mean square error methods, Mutual information, negative binomial channel, Poisson channel, Random variables, relative entropy}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } We study the relation of the mutual information and relative entropy over the Binomial and Negative Binomial channels with estimation theoretical quantities, in which we extend already known results for Gaussian and Poisson channels. We establish general expressions for these information theory concepts with a direct connection with estimation theory through the conditional mean estimation and a particular loss function. |

Pastore, Adriano; Koch, Tobias; Fonollosa, Javier Rodriguez Improved Capacity Lower Bounds for Fading Channels with Imperfect CSI Using Rate Splitting Inproceedings 2012 IEEE 27th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel, pp. 1–5, IEEE, Eilat, 2012, ISBN: 978-1-4673-4681-8. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: channel capacity, channel capacity lower bounds, conditional entropy, Decoding, Entropy, Fading, fading channels, Gaussian channel, Gaussian channels, Gaussian random variable, imperfect channel-state information, imperfect CSI, independent Gaussian variables, linear minimum mean-square error, mean square error methods, Medard lower bound, Mutual information, Random variables, rate splitting approach, Resource management, Upper bound, wireless communications @inproceedings{Pastore2012, title = {Improved Capacity Lower Bounds for Fading Channels with Imperfect CSI Using Rate Splitting}, author = {Adriano Pastore and Tobias Koch and Javier Rodriguez Fonollosa}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6377031}, isbn = {978-1-4673-4681-8}, year = {2012}, date = {2012-01-01}, booktitle = {2012 IEEE 27th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel}, pages = {1--5}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Eilat}, abstract = {As shown by Medard (“The effect upon channel capacity in wireless communications of perfect and imperfect knowledge of the channel,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, May 2000), the capacity of fading channels with imperfect channel-state information (CSI) can be lower-bounded by assuming a Gaussian channel input X, and by upper-bounding the conditional entropy h(XY, Ĥ), conditioned on the channel output Y and the CSI Ĥ, by the entropy of a Gaussian random variable with variance equal to the linear minimum mean-square error in estimating X from (Y, Ĥ). We demonstrate that, by using a rate-splitting approach, this lower bound can be sharpened: we show that by expressing the Gaussian input X as as the sum of two independent Gaussian variables X(1) and X(2), and by applying Medard's lower bound first to analyze the mutual information between X(1) and Y conditioned on Ĥ while treating X(2) as noise, and by applying the lower bound then to analyze the mutual information between X(2) and Y conditioned on (X(1), Ĥ), we obtain a lower bound on the capacity that is larger than Medard's lower bound.}, keywords = {channel capacity, channel capacity lower bounds, conditional entropy, Decoding, Entropy, Fading, fading channels, Gaussian channel, Gaussian channels, Gaussian random variable, imperfect channel-state information, imperfect CSI, independent Gaussian variables, linear minimum mean-square error, mean square error methods, Medard lower bound, Mutual information, Random variables, rate splitting approach, Resource management, Upper bound, wireless communications}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } As shown by Medard (“The effect upon channel capacity in wireless communications of perfect and imperfect knowledge of the channel,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, May 2000), the capacity of fading channels with imperfect channel-state information (CSI) can be lower-bounded by assuming a Gaussian channel input X, and by upper-bounding the conditional entropy h(XY, Ĥ), conditioned on the channel output Y and the CSI Ĥ, by the entropy of a Gaussian random variable with variance equal to the linear minimum mean-square error in estimating X from (Y, Ĥ). We demonstrate that, by using a rate-splitting approach, this lower bound can be sharpened: we show that by expressing the Gaussian input X as as the sum of two independent Gaussian variables X(1) and X(2), and by applying Medard's lower bound first to analyze the mutual information between X(1) and Y conditioned on Ĥ while treating X(2) as noise, and by applying the lower bound then to analyze the mutual information between X(2) and Y conditioned on (X(1), Ĥ), we obtain a lower bound on the capacity that is larger than Medard's lower bound. |

## 2011 |

## Inproceedings |

Asyhari, Taufiq A; Koch, Tobias; i Fàbregas, Albert Guillén Nearest Neighbour Decoding and Pilot-Aided Channel Estimation in Stationary Gaussian Flat-Fading Channels Inproceedings 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory Proceedings, pp. 2786–2790, IEEE, St. Petersburg, 2011, ISSN: 2157-8095. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Channel estimation, Decoding, Fading, fading channels, Gaussian channels, MIMO, MIMO communication, MISO, multiple-input multiple-output, nearest neighbour decoding, noncoherent multiple-input single-output, pilot-aided channel estimation, Receiving antennas, Signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, stationary Gaussian flat-fading channels, Wireless communication @inproceedings{Asyhari2011, title = {Nearest Neighbour Decoding and Pilot-Aided Channel Estimation in Stationary Gaussian Flat-Fading Channels}, author = {Taufiq A Asyhari and Tobias Koch and Albert Guillén i Fàbregas}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6034081}, issn = {2157-8095}, year = {2011}, date = {2011-01-01}, booktitle = {2011 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory Proceedings}, pages = {2786--2790}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {St. Petersburg}, abstract = {We study the information rates of non-coherent, stationary, Gaussian, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) flat-fading channels that are achievable with nearest neighbour decoding and pilot-aided channel estimation. In particular, we analyse the behaviour of these achievable rates in the limit as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) tends to infinity. We demonstrate that nearest neighbour decoding and pilot-aided channel estimation achieves the capacity pre-log-which is defined as the limiting ratio of the capacity to the logarithm of SNR as the SNR tends to infinity-of non-coherent multiple-input single-output (MISO) flat-fading channels, and it achieves the best so far known lower bound on the capacity pre-log of non-coherent MIMO flat-fading channels.}, keywords = {Channel estimation, Decoding, Fading, fading channels, Gaussian channels, MIMO, MIMO communication, MISO, multiple-input multiple-output, nearest neighbour decoding, noncoherent multiple-input single-output, pilot-aided channel estimation, Receiving antennas, Signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, stationary Gaussian flat-fading channels, Wireless communication}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } We study the information rates of non-coherent, stationary, Gaussian, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) flat-fading channels that are achievable with nearest neighbour decoding and pilot-aided channel estimation. In particular, we analyse the behaviour of these achievable rates in the limit as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) tends to infinity. We demonstrate that nearest neighbour decoding and pilot-aided channel estimation achieves the capacity pre-log-which is defined as the limiting ratio of the capacity to the logarithm of SNR as the SNR tends to infinity-of non-coherent multiple-input single-output (MISO) flat-fading channels, and it achieves the best so far known lower bound on the capacity pre-log of non-coherent MIMO flat-fading channels. |

Goparaju, S; Calderbank, A R; Carson, W R; Rodrigues, Miguel R D; Perez-Cruz, Fernando When to Add Another Dimension when Communicating over MIMO Channels Inproceedings 2011 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), pp. 3100–3103, IEEE, Prague, 2011, ISSN: 1520-6149. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: divide and conquer approach, divide and conquer methods, error probability, error rate, error statistics, Gaussian channels, Lattices, Manganese, MIMO, MIMO channel, MIMO communication, multiple input multiple output Gaussian channel, Mutual information, optimal power allocation, power allocation, power constraint, receive filter, Resource management, Signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, transmit filter, Upper bound @inproceedings{Goparaju2011, title = {When to Add Another Dimension when Communicating over MIMO Channels}, author = {S Goparaju and A R Calderbank and W R Carson and Miguel R D Rodrigues and Fernando Perez-Cruz}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=5946351}, issn = {1520-6149}, year = {2011}, date = {2011-01-01}, booktitle = {2011 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP)}, pages = {3100--3103}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Prague}, abstract = {This paper introduces a divide and conquer approach to the design of transmit and receive filters for communication over a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Gaussian channel subject to an average power constraint. It involves conversion to a set of parallel scalar channels, possibly with very different gains, followed by coding per sub-channel (i.e. over time) rather than coding across sub-channels (i.e. over time and space). The loss in performance is negligible at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and not significant at medium SNR. The advantages are reduction in signal processing complexity and greater insight into the SNR thresholds at which a channel is first allocated power. This insight is a consequence of formulating the optimal power allocation in terms of an upper bound on error rate that is determined by parameters of the input lattice such as the minimum distance and kissing number. The resulting thresholds are given explicitly in terms of these lattice parameters. By contrast, when the optimization problem is phrased in terms of maximizing mutual information, the solution is mercury waterfilling, and the thresholds are implicit.}, keywords = {divide and conquer approach, divide and conquer methods, error probability, error rate, error statistics, Gaussian channels, Lattices, Manganese, MIMO, MIMO channel, MIMO communication, multiple input multiple output Gaussian channel, Mutual information, optimal power allocation, power allocation, power constraint, receive filter, Resource management, Signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, transmit filter, Upper bound}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } This paper introduces a divide and conquer approach to the design of transmit and receive filters for communication over a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Gaussian channel subject to an average power constraint. It involves conversion to a set of parallel scalar channels, possibly with very different gains, followed by coding per sub-channel (i.e. over time) rather than coding across sub-channels (i.e. over time and space). The loss in performance is negligible at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and not significant at medium SNR. The advantages are reduction in signal processing complexity and greater insight into the SNR thresholds at which a channel is first allocated power. This insight is a consequence of formulating the optimal power allocation in terms of an upper bound on error rate that is determined by parameters of the input lattice such as the minimum distance and kissing number. The resulting thresholds are given explicitly in terms of these lattice parameters. By contrast, when the optimization problem is phrased in terms of maximizing mutual information, the solution is mercury waterfilling, and the thresholds are implicit. |

Koch, Tobias; Lapidoth, Amos Asymmetric Quantizers are Better at Low SNR Inproceedings 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory Proceedings, pp. 2592–2596, IEEE, St. Petersburg, 2011, ISSN: 2157-8095. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: asymmetric one-bit quantizer, asymmetric signal constellations, channel capacity, Channel Coding, Constellation diagram, Decoding, discrete-time average-power-limited Gaussian chann, Gaussian channels, quantization, Signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, spread spectrum communication, spread-spectrum communications, ultra wideband communication, ultrawideband communications, Upper bound @inproceedings{Koch2011, title = {Asymmetric Quantizers are Better at Low SNR}, author = {Tobias Koch and Amos Lapidoth}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6034037}, issn = {2157-8095}, year = {2011}, date = {2011-01-01}, booktitle = {2011 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory Proceedings}, pages = {2592--2596}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {St. Petersburg}, abstract = {We study the behavior of channel capacity when a one-bit quantizer is employed at the output of the discrete-time average-power-limited Gaussian channel. We focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio regime, where communication at very low spectral efficiencies takes place, as in Spread-Spectrum and Ultra-Wideband communications. It is well known that, in this regime, a symmetric one-bit quantizer reduces capacity by 2/$pi$, which translates to a power loss of approximately two decibels. Here we show that if an asymmetric one-bit quantizer is employed, and if asymmetric signal constellations are used, then these two decibels can be recovered in full.}, keywords = {asymmetric one-bit quantizer, asymmetric signal constellations, channel capacity, Channel Coding, Constellation diagram, Decoding, discrete-time average-power-limited Gaussian chann, Gaussian channels, quantization, Signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, spread spectrum communication, spread-spectrum communications, ultra wideband communication, ultrawideband communications, Upper bound}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } We study the behavior of channel capacity when a one-bit quantizer is employed at the output of the discrete-time average-power-limited Gaussian channel. We focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio regime, where communication at very low spectral efficiencies takes place, as in Spread-Spectrum and Ultra-Wideband communications. It is well known that, in this regime, a symmetric one-bit quantizer reduces capacity by 2/$pi$, which translates to a power loss of approximately two decibels. Here we show that if an asymmetric one-bit quantizer is employed, and if asymmetric signal constellations are used, then these two decibels can be recovered in full. |

## 2010 |

## Journal Articles |

Koch, Tobias; Lapidoth, Amos Gaussian Fading Is the Worst Fading Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 56 (3), pp. 1158–1165, 2010, ISSN: 0018-9448. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Additive noise, channel capacity, channels with memory, Distribution functions, ergodic fading processes, Fading, fading channels, flat fading, flat-fading channel capacity, Gaussian channels, Gaussian fading, Gaussian processes, H infinity control, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), Information technology, information theory, multiple-input single-output fading channels, multiplexing gain, noncoherent, noncoherent channel capacity, peak-power limited channel capacity, Signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, single-antenna channel capacity, spectral distribution function, time-selective, Transmitters @article{Koch2010a, title = {Gaussian Fading Is the Worst Fading}, author = {Tobias Koch and Amos Lapidoth}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=5429105}, issn = {0018-9448}, year = {2010}, date = {2010-01-01}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Information Theory}, volume = {56}, number = {3}, pages = {1158--1165}, abstract = {The capacity of peak-power limited, single-antenna, noncoherent, flat-fading channels with memory is considered. The emphasis is on the capacity pre-log, i.e., on the limiting ratio of channel capacity to the logarithm of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), as the SNR tends to infinity. It is shown that, among all stationary and ergodic fading processes of a given spectral distribution function and whose law has no mass point at zero, the Gaussian process gives rise to the smallest pre-log. The assumption that the law of the fading process has no mass point at zero is essential in the sense that there exist stationary and ergodic fading processes whose law has a mass point at zero and that give rise to a smaller pre-log than the Gaussian process of equal spectral distribution function. An extension of these results to multiple-input single-output (MISO) fading channels with memory is also presented.}, keywords = {Additive noise, channel capacity, channels with memory, Distribution functions, ergodic fading processes, Fading, fading channels, flat fading, flat-fading channel capacity, Gaussian channels, Gaussian fading, Gaussian processes, H infinity control, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), Information technology, information theory, multiple-input single-output fading channels, multiplexing gain, noncoherent, noncoherent channel capacity, peak-power limited channel capacity, Signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, single-antenna channel capacity, spectral distribution function, time-selective, Transmitters}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } The capacity of peak-power limited, single-antenna, noncoherent, flat-fading channels with memory is considered. The emphasis is on the capacity pre-log, i.e., on the limiting ratio of channel capacity to the logarithm of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), as the SNR tends to infinity. It is shown that, among all stationary and ergodic fading processes of a given spectral distribution function and whose law has no mass point at zero, the Gaussian process gives rise to the smallest pre-log. The assumption that the law of the fading process has no mass point at zero is essential in the sense that there exist stationary and ergodic fading processes whose law has a mass point at zero and that give rise to a smaller pre-log than the Gaussian process of equal spectral distribution function. An extension of these results to multiple-input single-output (MISO) fading channels with memory is also presented. |

Perez-Cruz, Fernando; Rodrigues, Miguel R D; Verdu, Sergio MIMO Gaussian Channels With Arbitrary Inputs: Optimal Precoding and Power Allocation Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 56 (3), pp. 1070–1084, 2010, ISSN: 0018-9448. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Collaborative work, Equations, fixed-point equation, Gaussian channels, Gaussian noise channels, Gaussian processes, Government, Interference, linear precoding, matrix algebra, mean square error methods, mercury-waterfilling algorithm, MIMO, MIMO communication, MIMO Gaussian channel, minimum mean-square error, minimum mean-square error (MMSE), multiple-input-multiple-output channel, multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) systems, Mutual information, nondiagonal precoding matrix, optimal linear precoder, optimal power allocation policy, optimal precoding, optimum power allocation, Phase shift keying, precoding, Quadrature amplitude modulation, Telecommunications, waterfilling @article{Perez-Cruz2010a, title = {MIMO Gaussian Channels With Arbitrary Inputs: Optimal Precoding and Power Allocation}, author = {Fernando Perez-Cruz and Miguel R D Rodrigues and Sergio Verdu}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=5429131}, issn = {0018-9448}, year = {2010}, date = {2010-01-01}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Information Theory}, volume = {56}, number = {3}, pages = {1070--1084}, abstract = {In this paper, we investigate the linear precoding and power allocation policies that maximize the mutual information for general multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian channels with arbitrary input distributions, by capitalizing on the relationship between mutual information and minimum mean-square error (MMSE). The optimal linear precoder satisfies a fixed-point equation as a function of the channel and the input constellation. For non-Gaussian inputs, a nondiagonal precoding matrix in general increases the information transmission rate, even for parallel noninteracting channels. Whenever precoding is precluded, the optimal power allocation policy also satisfies a fixed-point equation; we put forth a generalization of the mercury/waterfilling algorithm, previously proposed for parallel noninterfering channels, in which the mercury level accounts not only for the non-Gaussian input distributions, but also for the interference among inputs.}, keywords = {Collaborative work, Equations, fixed-point equation, Gaussian channels, Gaussian noise channels, Gaussian processes, Government, Interference, linear precoding, matrix algebra, mean square error methods, mercury-waterfilling algorithm, MIMO, MIMO communication, MIMO Gaussian channel, minimum mean-square error, minimum mean-square error (MMSE), multiple-input-multiple-output channel, multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) systems, Mutual information, nondiagonal precoding matrix, optimal linear precoder, optimal power allocation policy, optimal precoding, optimum power allocation, Phase shift keying, precoding, Quadrature amplitude modulation, Telecommunications, waterfilling}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } In this paper, we investigate the linear precoding and power allocation policies that maximize the mutual information for general multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian channels with arbitrary input distributions, by capitalizing on the relationship between mutual information and minimum mean-square error (MMSE). The optimal linear precoder satisfies a fixed-point equation as a function of the channel and the input constellation. For non-Gaussian inputs, a nondiagonal precoding matrix in general increases the information transmission rate, even for parallel noninteracting channels. Whenever precoding is precluded, the optimal power allocation policy also satisfies a fixed-point equation; we put forth a generalization of the mercury/waterfilling algorithm, previously proposed for parallel noninterfering channels, in which the mercury level accounts not only for the non-Gaussian input distributions, but also for the interference among inputs. |

## Inproceedings |

Koch, Tobias; Lapidoth, Amos Increased Capacity per Unit-Cost by Oversampling Inproceedings 2010 IEEE 26-th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel, pp. 000684–000688, IEEE, Eliat, 2010, ISBN: 978-1-4244-8681-6. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: AWGN, AWGN channels, bandlimited Gaussian channel, channel capacity, Gaussian channels, increased capacity per unit cost, Information rates, one bit output quantizer, oversampling, quantisation (signal), quantization, sampling rate recovery, signal sampling @inproceedings{Koch2010, title = {Increased Capacity per Unit-Cost by Oversampling}, author = {Tobias Koch and Amos Lapidoth}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=5662127}, isbn = {978-1-4244-8681-6}, year = {2010}, date = {2010-01-01}, booktitle = {2010 IEEE 26-th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel}, pages = {000684--000688}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Eliat}, abstract = {It is demonstrated that doubling the sampling rate recovers some of the loss in capacity incurred on the bandlimited Gaussian channel with a one-bit output quantizer.}, keywords = {AWGN, AWGN channels, bandlimited Gaussian channel, channel capacity, Gaussian channels, increased capacity per unit cost, Information rates, one bit output quantizer, oversampling, quantisation (signal), quantization, sampling rate recovery, signal sampling}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } It is demonstrated that doubling the sampling rate recovers some of the loss in capacity incurred on the bandlimited Gaussian channel with a one-bit output quantizer. |

## 2008 |

## Inproceedings |

Perez-Cruz, Fernando; Rodrigues, Miguel R D; Verdu, Sergio Optimal Precoding for Digital Subscriber Lines Inproceedings 2008 IEEE International Conference on Communications, pp. 1200–1204, IEEE, Beijing, 2008, ISBN: 978-1-4244-2075-9. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Bit error rate, channel matrix diagonalization, Communications Society, Computer science, digital subscriber lines, DSL, Equations, fixed-point equation, Gaussian channels, least mean squares methods, linear codes, matrix algebra, MIMO, MIMO communication, MIMO Gaussian channel, minimum mean squared error method, MMSE, multiple-input multiple-output communication, Mutual information, optimal linear precoder, precoding, Telecommunications, Telephony @inproceedings{Perez-Cruz2008a, title = {Optimal Precoding for Digital Subscriber Lines}, author = {Fernando Perez-Cruz and Miguel R D Rodrigues and Sergio Verdu}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=4533270}, isbn = {978-1-4244-2075-9}, year = {2008}, date = {2008-01-01}, booktitle = {2008 IEEE International Conference on Communications}, pages = {1200--1204}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Beijing}, abstract = {We determine the linear precoding policy that maximizes the mutual information for general multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian channels with arbitrary input distributions, by capitalizing on the relationship between mutual information and minimum mean squared error (MMSE). The optimal linear precoder can be computed by means of a fixed- point equation as a function of the channel and the input constellation. We show that diagonalizing the channel matrix does not maximize the information transmission rate for nonGaussian inputs. A full precoding matrix may significantly increase the information transmission rate, even for parallel non-interacting channels. We illustrate the application of our results to typical Gigabit DSL systems.}, keywords = {Bit error rate, channel matrix diagonalization, Communications Society, Computer science, digital subscriber lines, DSL, Equations, fixed-point equation, Gaussian channels, least mean squares methods, linear codes, matrix algebra, MIMO, MIMO communication, MIMO Gaussian channel, minimum mean squared error method, MMSE, multiple-input multiple-output communication, Mutual information, optimal linear precoder, precoding, Telecommunications, Telephony}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } We determine the linear precoding policy that maximizes the mutual information for general multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian channels with arbitrary input distributions, by capitalizing on the relationship between mutual information and minimum mean squared error (MMSE). The optimal linear precoder can be computed by means of a fixed- point equation as a function of the channel and the input constellation. We show that diagonalizing the channel matrix does not maximize the information transmission rate for nonGaussian inputs. A full precoding matrix may significantly increase the information transmission rate, even for parallel non-interacting channels. We illustrate the application of our results to typical Gigabit DSL systems. |

Rodrigues, Miguel R D; Perez-Cruz, Fernando; Verdu, Sergio Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Gaussian Channels: Optimal Covariance for Non-Gaussian Inputs Inproceedings 2008 IEEE Information Theory Workshop, pp. 445–449, IEEE, Porto, 2008, ISBN: 978-1-4244-2269-2. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Binary phase shift keying, covariance matrices, Covariance matrix, deterministic MIMO Gaussian channel, fixed-point equation, Gaussian channels, Gaussian noise, Information rates, intersymbol interference, least mean squares methods, Magnetic recording, mercury-waterfilling power allocation policy, MIMO, MIMO communication, minimum mean-squared error, MMSE, MMSE matrix, multiple-input multiple-output system, Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Systems, Mutual information, Optimal Input Covariance, Optimization, Telecommunications @inproceedings{Rodrigues2008, title = {Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Gaussian Channels: Optimal Covariance for Non-Gaussian Inputs}, author = {Miguel R D Rodrigues and Fernando Perez-Cruz and Sergio Verdu}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=4578704}, isbn = {978-1-4244-2269-2}, year = {2008}, date = {2008-01-01}, booktitle = {2008 IEEE Information Theory Workshop}, pages = {445--449}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Porto}, abstract = {We investigate the input covariance that maximizes the mutual information of deterministic multiple-input multipleo-utput (MIMO) Gaussian channels with arbitrary (not necessarily Gaussian) input distributions, by capitalizing on the relationship between the gradient of the mutual information and the minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) matrix. We show that the optimal input covariance satisfies a simple fixed-point equation involving key system quantities, including the MMSE matrix. We also specialize the form of the optimal input covariance to the asymptotic regimes of low and high snr. We demonstrate that in the low-snr regime the optimal covariance fully correlates the inputs to better combat noise. In contrast, in the high-snr regime the optimal covariance is diagonal with diagonal elements obeying the generalized mercury/waterfilling power allocation policy. Numerical results illustrate that covariance optimization may lead to significant gains with respect to conventional strategies based on channel diagonalization followed by mercury/waterfilling or waterfilling power allocation, particularly in the regimes of medium and high snr.}, keywords = {Binary phase shift keying, covariance matrices, Covariance matrix, deterministic MIMO Gaussian channel, fixed-point equation, Gaussian channels, Gaussian noise, Information rates, intersymbol interference, least mean squares methods, Magnetic recording, mercury-waterfilling power allocation policy, MIMO, MIMO communication, minimum mean-squared error, MMSE, MMSE matrix, multiple-input multiple-output system, Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Systems, Mutual information, Optimal Input Covariance, Optimization, Telecommunications}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } We investigate the input covariance that maximizes the mutual information of deterministic multiple-input multipleo-utput (MIMO) Gaussian channels with arbitrary (not necessarily Gaussian) input distributions, by capitalizing on the relationship between the gradient of the mutual information and the minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) matrix. We show that the optimal input covariance satisfies a simple fixed-point equation involving key system quantities, including the MMSE matrix. We also specialize the form of the optimal input covariance to the asymptotic regimes of low and high snr. We demonstrate that in the low-snr regime the optimal covariance fully correlates the inputs to better combat noise. In contrast, in the high-snr regime the optimal covariance is diagonal with diagonal elements obeying the generalized mercury/waterfilling power allocation policy. Numerical results illustrate that covariance optimization may lead to significant gains with respect to conventional strategies based on channel diagonalization followed by mercury/waterfilling or waterfilling power allocation, particularly in the regimes of medium and high snr. |