## 2013 |

## Journal Articles |

Vazquez, Manuel; Miguez, Joaquin User Activity Tracking in DS-CDMA Systems (Journal Article) IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 62 (7), pp. 3188–3203, 2013, ISSN: 0018-9545. (Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Activity detection, activity tracking, Bayes methods, Bayesian framework, Channel estimation, code division multiple access, code-division multiple access (CDMA), computer simulations, data detection, direct sequence code division multiple-access, DS-CDMA systems, Equations, joint channel and data estimation, joint channel estimation, Joints, MAP equalizers, Mathematical model, maximum a posteriori, MIMO communication, Multiaccess communication, multiple-input-multiple-output communication chann, multiuser communication systems, per-survivor processing (PSP), radio receivers, Receivers, sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods, time-varying number, time-varying parameter, Vectors, wireless channels) @article{Vazquez2013a, title = {User Activity Tracking in DS-CDMA Systems}, author = {Vazquez, Manuel A. and Miguez, Joaquin}, url = {http://www.tsc.uc3m.es/~jmiguez/papers/P39_2013_User Activity Tracking in DS-CDMA Systems.pdf http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6473922}, issn = {0018-9545}, year = {2013}, date = {2013-01-01}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology}, volume = {62}, number = {7}, pages = {3188--3203}, abstract = {In modern multiuser communication systems, users are allowed to enter or leave the system at any given time. Thus, the number of active users is an unknown and time-varying parameter, and the performance of the system depends on how accurately this parameter is estimated over time. The so-called problem of user identification, which consists of determining the number and identities of users transmitting in a communication system, is usually solved prior to, and hence independently of, that posed by the detection of the transmitted data. Since both problems are tightly connected, a joint solution is desirable. In this paper, we focus on direct-sequence (DS) code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems and derive, within a Bayesian framework, different receivers that cope with an unknown and time-varying number of users while performing joint channel estimation and data detection. The main feature of these receivers, compared with other recently proposed schemes for user activity detection, is that they are natural extensions of existing maximum a posteriori (MAP) equalizers for multiple-input-multiple-output communication channels. We assess the validity of the proposed receivers, including their reliability in detecting the number and identities of active users, by way of computer simulations.}, keywords = {Activity detection, activity tracking, Bayes methods, Bayesian framework, Channel estimation, code division multiple access, code-division multiple access (CDMA), computer simulations, data detection, direct sequence code division multiple-access, DS-CDMA systems, Equations, joint channel and data estimation, joint channel estimation, Joints, MAP equalizers, Mathematical model, maximum a posteriori, MIMO communication, Multiaccess communication, multiple-input-multiple-output communication chann, multiuser communication systems, per-survivor processing (PSP), radio receivers, Receivers, sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods, time-varying number, time-varying parameter, Vectors, wireless channels}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } In modern multiuser communication systems, users are allowed to enter or leave the system at any given time. Thus, the number of active users is an unknown and time-varying parameter, and the performance of the system depends on how accurately this parameter is estimated over time. The so-called problem of user identification, which consists of determining the number and identities of users transmitting in a communication system, is usually solved prior to, and hence independently of, that posed by the detection of the transmitted data. Since both problems are tightly connected, a joint solution is desirable. In this paper, we focus on direct-sequence (DS) code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems and derive, within a Bayesian framework, different receivers that cope with an unknown and time-varying number of users while performing joint channel estimation and data detection. The main feature of these receivers, compared with other recently proposed schemes for user activity detection, is that they are natural extensions of existing maximum a posteriori (MAP) equalizers for multiple-input-multiple-output communication channels. We assess the validity of the proposed receivers, including their reliability in detecting the number and identities of active users, by way of computer simulations. |

## 2012 |

## Journal Articles |

Maiz, Cristina; Molanes-Lopez, Elisa; Miguez, Joaquin; Djuric, Petar A Particle Filtering Scheme for Processing Time Series Corrupted by Outliers (Journal Article) IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 60 (9), pp. 4611–4627, 2012, ISSN: 1053-587X. (Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Kalman filters, Mathematical model, nonlinear state space model, Outlier detection, prediction theory, predictive distribution, Probability density function, State-space methods, state-space models, statistical distributions, Target tracking, time serie processing, Vectors, Yttrium) @article{Maiz2012, title = {A Particle Filtering Scheme for Processing Time Series Corrupted by Outliers}, author = {Maiz, Cristina S. and Molanes-Lopez, Elisa M. and Miguez, Joaquin and Djuric, Petar M.}, url = {http://www.tsc.uc3m.es/~jmiguez/papers/P34_2012_A Particle Filtering Scheme for Processing Time Series Corrupted by Outliers.pdf http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6203606}, issn = {1053-587X}, year = {2012}, date = {2012-01-01}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing}, volume = {60}, number = {9}, pages = {4611--4627}, abstract = {The literature in engineering and statistics is abounding in techniques for detecting and properly processing anomalous observations in the data. Most of these techniques have been developed in the framework of static models and it is only in recent years that we have seen attempts that address the presence of outliers in nonlinear time series. For a target tracking problem described by a nonlinear state-space model, we propose the online detection of outliers by including an outlier detection step within the standard particle filtering algorithm. The outlier detection step is implemented by a test involving a statistic of the predictive distribution of the observations, such as a concentration measure or an extreme upper quantile. We also provide asymptotic results about the convergence of the particle approximations of the predictive distribution (and its statistics) and assess the performance of the resulting algorithms by computer simulations of target tracking problems with signal power observations.}, keywords = {Kalman filters, Mathematical model, nonlinear state space model, Outlier detection, prediction theory, predictive distribution, Probability density function, State-space methods, state-space models, statistical distributions, Target tracking, time serie processing, Vectors, Yttrium}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } The literature in engineering and statistics is abounding in techniques for detecting and properly processing anomalous observations in the data. Most of these techniques have been developed in the framework of static models and it is only in recent years that we have seen attempts that address the presence of outliers in nonlinear time series. For a target tracking problem described by a nonlinear state-space model, we propose the online detection of outliers by including an outlier detection step within the standard particle filtering algorithm. The outlier detection step is implemented by a test involving a statistic of the predictive distribution of the observations, such as a concentration measure or an extreme upper quantile. We also provide asymptotic results about the convergence of the particle approximations of the predictive distribution (and its statistics) and assess the performance of the resulting algorithms by computer simulations of target tracking problems with signal power observations. |

## Inproceedings |

Garcia-Moreno, Pablo; Artés-Rodríguez, Antonio; Hansen, Lars Kai A Hold-out Method to Correct PCA Variance Inflation (Inproceeding) 2012 3rd International Workshop on Cognitive Information Processing (CIP), pp. 1–6, IEEE, Baiona, 2012, ISBN: 978-1-4673-1878-5. (Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Approximation methods, classification scenario, computational complexity, computational cost, Computational efficiency, correction method, hold-out method, hold-out procedure, leave-one-out procedure, LOO method, LOO procedure, Mathematical model, PCA algorithm, PCA variance inflation, Principal component analysis, singular value decomposition, Standards, SVD, Training) @inproceedings{Garcia-Moreno2012, title = {A Hold-out Method to Correct PCA Variance Inflation}, author = {Garcia-Moreno, Pablo and Artés-Rodríguez, Antonio and Hansen, Lars Kai}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6232926}, isbn = {978-1-4673-1878-5}, year = {2012}, date = {2012-01-01}, booktitle = {2012 3rd International Workshop on Cognitive Information Processing (CIP)}, pages = {1--6}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Baiona}, abstract = {In this paper we analyze the problem of variance inflation experienced by the PCA algorithm when working in an ill-posed scenario where the dimensionality of the training set is larger than its sample size. In an earlier article a correction method based on a Leave-One-Out (LOO) procedure was introduced. We propose a Hold-out procedure whose computational cost is lower and, unlike the LOO method, the number of SVD's does not scale with the sample size. We analyze its properties from a theoretical and empirical point of view. Finally we apply it to a real classification scenario.}, keywords = {Approximation methods, classification scenario, computational complexity, computational cost, Computational efficiency, correction method, hold-out method, hold-out procedure, leave-one-out procedure, LOO method, LOO procedure, Mathematical model, PCA algorithm, PCA variance inflation, Principal component analysis, singular value decomposition, Standards, SVD, Training}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } In this paper we analyze the problem of variance inflation experienced by the PCA algorithm when working in an ill-posed scenario where the dimensionality of the training set is larger than its sample size. In an earlier article a correction method based on a Leave-One-Out (LOO) procedure was introduced. We propose a Hold-out procedure whose computational cost is lower and, unlike the LOO method, the number of SVD's does not scale with the sample size. We analyze its properties from a theoretical and empirical point of view. Finally we apply it to a real classification scenario. |

Monzon, Sandra; Trigano, Tom; Luengo, David; Artés-Rodríguez, Antonio Sparse Spectral Analysis of Atrial Fibrillation Electrograms. (Inproceeding) 2012 IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing, pp. 1–6, IEEE, Santander, 2012, ISSN: 1551-2541. (Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Algorithm design and analysis, atrial fibrillation, atrial fibrillation electrogram, biomedical signal processing, dominant frequency, Doped fiber amplifiers, electrocardiography, Harmonic analysis, Heart, heart disorder, Indexes, Mathematical model, medical signal processing, multiple foci, multiple uncoordinated activation foci, signal processing technique, sparse spectral analysis, sparsity-aware learning, sparsity-aware learning technique, spectral analysis, spike train) @inproceedings{Monzon2012, title = {Sparse Spectral Analysis of Atrial Fibrillation Electrograms.}, author = {Monzon, Sandra and Trigano, Tom and Luengo, David and Artés-Rodríguez, Antonio}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6349721}, issn = {1551-2541}, year = {2012}, date = {2012-01-01}, booktitle = {2012 IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing}, pages = {1--6}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Santander}, abstract = {Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common heart disorder. One of the most prominent hypothesis about its initiation and maintenance considers multiple uncoordinated activation foci inside the atrium. However, the implicit assumption behind all the signal processing techniques used for AF, such as dominant frequency and organization analysis, is the existence of a single regular component in the observed signals. In this paper we take into account the existence of multiple foci, performing a spectral analysis to detect their number and frequencies. In order to obtain a cleaner signal on which the spectral analysis can be performed, we introduce sparsity-aware learning techniques to infer the spike trains corresponding to the activations. The good performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated both on synthetic and real data.}, keywords = {Algorithm design and analysis, atrial fibrillation, atrial fibrillation electrogram, biomedical signal processing, dominant frequency, Doped fiber amplifiers, electrocardiography, Harmonic analysis, Heart, heart disorder, Indexes, Mathematical model, medical signal processing, multiple foci, multiple uncoordinated activation foci, signal processing technique, sparse spectral analysis, sparsity-aware learning, sparsity-aware learning technique, spectral analysis, spike train}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common heart disorder. One of the most prominent hypothesis about its initiation and maintenance considers multiple uncoordinated activation foci inside the atrium. However, the implicit assumption behind all the signal processing techniques used for AF, such as dominant frequency and organization analysis, is the existence of a single regular component in the observed signals. In this paper we take into account the existence of multiple foci, performing a spectral analysis to detect their number and frequencies. In order to obtain a cleaner signal on which the spectral analysis can be performed, we introduce sparsity-aware learning techniques to infer the spike trains corresponding to the activations. The good performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated both on synthetic and real data. |

Zhong, Jingshan; Dauwels, Justin; Vazquez, Manuel; Waller, Laura Efficient Gaussian Inference Algorithms for Phase Imaging (Inproceeding) 2012 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), pp. 617–620, IEEE, Kyoto, 2012, ISSN: 1520-6149. (Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: biomedical optical imaging, complex optical field, computational complexity, defocus distances, Fourier domain, Gaussian inference algorithms, image sequences, inference mechanisms, intensity image sequence, iterative Kalman smoothing, iterative methods, Kalman filter, Kalman filters, Kalman recursions, linear model, Manganese, Mathematical model, medical image processing, Noise, noisy intensity image, nonlinear observation model, Optical imaging, Optical sensors, Phase imaging, phase inference algorithms, smoothing methods) @inproceedings{Zhong2012a, title = {Efficient Gaussian Inference Algorithms for Phase Imaging}, author = {Zhong, Jingshan and Dauwels, Justin and Vazquez, Manuel A. and Waller, Laura}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6287959}, issn = {1520-6149}, year = {2012}, date = {2012-01-01}, booktitle = {2012 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP)}, pages = {617--620}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Kyoto}, abstract = {Novel efficient algorithms are developed to infer the phase of a complex optical field from a sequence of intensity images taken at different defocus distances. The non-linear observation model is approximated by a linear model. The complex optical field is inferred by iterative Kalman smoothing in the Fourier domain: forward and backward sweeps of Kalman recursions are alternated, and in each such sweep, the approximate linear model is refined. By limiting the number of iterations, one can trade off accuracy vs. complexity. The complexity of each iteration in the proposed algorithm is in the order of N logN, where N is the number of pixels per image. The storage required scales linearly with N. In contrast, the complexity of existing phase inference algorithms scales with N3 and the required storage with N2. The proposed algorithms may enable real-time estimation of optical fields from noisy intensity images.}, keywords = {biomedical optical imaging, complex optical field, computational complexity, defocus distances, Fourier domain, Gaussian inference algorithms, image sequences, inference mechanisms, intensity image sequence, iterative Kalman smoothing, iterative methods, Kalman filter, Kalman filters, Kalman recursions, linear model, Manganese, Mathematical model, medical image processing, Noise, noisy intensity image, nonlinear observation model, Optical imaging, Optical sensors, Phase imaging, phase inference algorithms, smoothing methods}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } Novel efficient algorithms are developed to infer the phase of a complex optical field from a sequence of intensity images taken at different defocus distances. The non-linear observation model is approximated by a linear model. The complex optical field is inferred by iterative Kalman smoothing in the Fourier domain: forward and backward sweeps of Kalman recursions are alternated, and in each such sweep, the approximate linear model is refined. By limiting the number of iterations, one can trade off accuracy vs. complexity. The complexity of each iteration in the proposed algorithm is in the order of N logN, where N is the number of pixels per image. The storage required scales linearly with N. In contrast, the complexity of existing phase inference algorithms scales with N3 and the required storage with N2. The proposed algorithms may enable real-time estimation of optical fields from noisy intensity images. |

## 2010 |

## Inproceedings |

Achutegui, Katrin; Rodas, Javier; Escudero, Carlos; Miguez, Joaquin A Model-Switching Sequential Monte Carlo Algorithm for Indoor Tracking with Experimental RSS Data (Inproceeding) 2010 International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation, pp. 1–8, IEEE, Zurich, 2010, ISBN: 978-1-4244-5862-2. (Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Approximation methods, Computational modeling, Data models, generalized IMM system, GIMM approach, indoor radio, Indoor tracking, Kalman filters, maneuvering target motion, Mathematical model, model switching sequential Monte Carlo algorithm, Monte Carlo methods, multipath propagation, multiple model interaction, propagation environment, radio receivers, radio tracking, radio transmitters, random processes, Rao-Blackwellized sequential Monte Carlo tracking, received signal strength, RSS data, sensors, state space model, target position dependent data, transmitter-to-receiver distance, wireless technology) @inproceedings{Achutegui2010, title = {A Model-Switching Sequential Monte Carlo Algorithm for Indoor Tracking with Experimental RSS Data}, author = {Achutegui, Katrin and Rodas, Javier and Escudero, Carlos J. and Miguez, Joaquin}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=5648053}, isbn = {978-1-4244-5862-2}, year = {2010}, date = {2010-01-01}, booktitle = {2010 International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation}, pages = {1--8}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Zurich}, abstract = {In this paper we address the problem of indoor tracking using received signal strength (RSS) as position-dependent data. This type of measurements are very appealing because they can be easily obtained with a variety of (inexpensive) wireless technologies. However, the extraction of accurate location information from RSS in indoor scenarios is not an easy task. Due to the multipath propagation, it is hard to adequately model the correspondence between the received power and the transmitter-to-receiver distance. For that reason, we propose the use of a compound model that combines several sub-models, whose parameters are adjusted to different propagation environments. This methodology, called Interacting Multiple Models (IMM), has been used in the past either for modeling the motion of maneuvering targets or the relationship between the target position and the observations. Here, we extend its application to handle both types of uncertainty simultaneously and we refer to the resulting state-space model as a generalized IMM (GIMM) system. The flexibility of the GIMM approach is attained at the expense of an increase in the number of random processes that must be accurately tracked. To overcome this difficulty, we introduce a Rao-Blackwellized sequential Monte Carlo tracking algorithm that exhibits good performance both with synthetic and experimental data.}, keywords = {Approximation methods, Computational modeling, Data models, generalized IMM system, GIMM approach, indoor radio, Indoor tracking, Kalman filters, maneuvering target motion, Mathematical model, model switching sequential Monte Carlo algorithm, Monte Carlo methods, multipath propagation, multiple model interaction, propagation environment, radio receivers, radio tracking, radio transmitters, random processes, Rao-Blackwellized sequential Monte Carlo tracking, received signal strength, RSS data, sensors, state space model, target position dependent data, transmitter-to-receiver distance, wireless technology}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } In this paper we address the problem of indoor tracking using received signal strength (RSS) as position-dependent data. This type of measurements are very appealing because they can be easily obtained with a variety of (inexpensive) wireless technologies. However, the extraction of accurate location information from RSS in indoor scenarios is not an easy task. Due to the multipath propagation, it is hard to adequately model the correspondence between the received power and the transmitter-to-receiver distance. For that reason, we propose the use of a compound model that combines several sub-models, whose parameters are adjusted to different propagation environments. This methodology, called Interacting Multiple Models (IMM), has been used in the past either for modeling the motion of maneuvering targets or the relationship between the target position and the observations. Here, we extend its application to handle both types of uncertainty simultaneously and we refer to the resulting state-space model as a generalized IMM (GIMM) system. The flexibility of the GIMM approach is attained at the expense of an increase in the number of random processes that must be accurately tracked. To overcome this difficulty, we introduce a Rao-Blackwellized sequential Monte Carlo tracking algorithm that exhibits good performance both with synthetic and experimental data. |

## 2008 |

## Inproceedings |

Koch, Tobias; Lapidoth, Amos On Multipath Fading Channels at High SNR (Inproceeding) 2008 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, pp. 1572–1576, IEEE, Toronto, 2008, ISBN: 978-1-4244-2256-2. (Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: channel capacity, Delay, discrete time systems, discrete-time channels, Entropy, Fading, fading channels, Frequency, Mathematical model, multipath channels, multipath fading channels, noncoherent channel model, Random variables, Signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratios, SNR, statistics, Transmitters) @inproceedings{Koch2008, title = {On Multipath Fading Channels at High SNR}, author = {Koch, Tobias and Lapidoth, Amos}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=4595252}, isbn = {978-1-4244-2256-2}, year = {2008}, date = {2008-01-01}, booktitle = {2008 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory}, pages = {1572--1576}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Toronto}, abstract = {This paper studies the capacity of discrete-time multipath fading channels. It is assumed that the number of paths is finite, i.e., that the channel output is influenced by the present and by the L previous channel inputs. A noncoherent channel model is considered where neither transmitter nor receiver are cognizant of the fading's realization, but both are aware of its statistic. The focus is on capacity at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). In particular, the capacity pre-loglog-defined as the limiting ratio of the capacity to loglog(SNR) as SNR tends to infinity-is studied. It is shown that, irrespective of the number of paths L, the capacity pre-loglog is 1.}, keywords = {channel capacity, Delay, discrete time systems, discrete-time channels, Entropy, Fading, fading channels, Frequency, Mathematical model, multipath channels, multipath fading channels, noncoherent channel model, Random variables, Signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratios, SNR, statistics, Transmitters}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } This paper studies the capacity of discrete-time multipath fading channels. It is assumed that the number of paths is finite, i.e., that the channel output is influenced by the present and by the L previous channel inputs. A noncoherent channel model is considered where neither transmitter nor receiver are cognizant of the fading's realization, but both are aware of its statistic. The focus is on capacity at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). In particular, the capacity pre-loglog-defined as the limiting ratio of the capacity to loglog(SNR) as SNR tends to infinity-is studied. It is shown that, irrespective of the number of paths L, the capacity pre-loglog is 1. |