## 2012 |

## Inproceedings |

Salamanca, Luis; Murillo-Fuentes, Juan Jose; Olmos, Pablo; Perez-Cruz, Fernando Tree-Structured Expectation Propagation for LDPC Decoding over the AWGN Channel (Inproceeding) 2012 IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing, pp. 1–6, IEEE, Santander, 2012, ISSN: 1551-2541. (Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: additive white Gaussian noise channel, Approximation algorithms, Approximation methods, approximation theory, AWGN channel, AWGN channels, belief propagation solution, Bit error rate, Decoding, error floor reduction, finite-length regime, Gain, Joints, LDPC decoding, low-density parity-check decoding, pairwise marginal constraint, parity check codes, TEP decoder, tree-like approximation, tree-structured expectation propagation, trees (mathematics)) @inproceedings{Salamanca2012, title = {Tree-Structured Expectation Propagation for LDPC Decoding over the AWGN Channel}, author = {Salamanca, Luis and Murillo-Fuentes, Juan Jose and Olmos, Pablo M. and Perez-Cruz, Fernando}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6349716}, issn = {1551-2541}, year = {2012}, date = {2012-01-01}, booktitle = {2012 IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing}, pages = {1--6}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Santander}, abstract = {In this paper, we propose the tree-structured expectation propagation (TEP) algorithm for low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoding over the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. By imposing a tree-like approximation over the graphical model of the code, this algorithm introduces pairwise marginal constraints over pairs of variables, which provide joint information of the variables related. Thanks to this, the proposed TEP decoder improves the performance of the standard belief propagation (BP) solution. An efficient way of constructing the tree-like structure is also described. The simulation results illustrate the TEP decoder gain in the finite-length regime, compared to the standard BP solution. For code lengths shorter than n = 512, the gain in the waterfall region achieves up to 0.25 dB. We also notice a remarkable reduction of the error floor.}, keywords = {additive white Gaussian noise channel, Approximation algorithms, Approximation methods, approximation theory, AWGN channel, AWGN channels, belief propagation solution, Bit error rate, Decoding, error floor reduction, finite-length regime, Gain, Joints, LDPC decoding, low-density parity-check decoding, pairwise marginal constraint, parity check codes, TEP decoder, tree-like approximation, tree-structured expectation propagation, trees (mathematics)}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } In this paper, we propose the tree-structured expectation propagation (TEP) algorithm for low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoding over the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. By imposing a tree-like approximation over the graphical model of the code, this algorithm introduces pairwise marginal constraints over pairs of variables, which provide joint information of the variables related. Thanks to this, the proposed TEP decoder improves the performance of the standard belief propagation (BP) solution. An efficient way of constructing the tree-like structure is also described. The simulation results illustrate the TEP decoder gain in the finite-length regime, compared to the standard BP solution. For code lengths shorter than n = 512, the gain in the waterfall region achieves up to 0.25 dB. We also notice a remarkable reduction of the error floor. |

## 2011 |

## Inproceedings |

Olmos, Pablo; Urbanke, Rudiger Scaling Behavior of Convolutional LDPC Ensembles over the BEC (Inproceeding) 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory Proceedings, pp. 1816–1820, IEEE, Saint Petersburg, 2011, ISSN: 2157-8095. (Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: BEC, binary codes, binary erasure channel, Bit error rate, convolutional codes, convolutional LDPC ensembles, coupled sparse graph codes, Couplings, Decoding, error probability, Iterative decoding, parity check codes, scaling behavior) @inproceedings{Olmos2011, title = {Scaling Behavior of Convolutional LDPC Ensembles over the BEC}, author = {Olmos, Pablo M. and Urbanke, Rudiger}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6033863}, issn = {2157-8095}, year = {2011}, date = {2011-01-01}, booktitle = {2011 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory Proceedings}, pages = {1816--1820}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Saint Petersburg}, abstract = {We study the scaling behavior of coupled sparse graph codes over the binary erasure channel. In particular, let 2L+1 be the length of the coupled chain, let M be the number of variables in each of the 2L+1 local copies, let ℓ be the number of iterations, let Pb denote the bit error probability, and let ∈ denote the channel parameter. We are interested in how these quantities scale when we let the blocklength (2L + 1)M tend to infinity. Based on empirical evidence we show that the threshold saturation phenomenon is rather stable with respect to the scaling of the various parameters and we formulate some general rules of thumb which can serve as a guide for the design of coding systems based on coupled graphs.}, keywords = {BEC, binary codes, binary erasure channel, Bit error rate, convolutional codes, convolutional LDPC ensembles, coupled sparse graph codes, Couplings, Decoding, error probability, Iterative decoding, parity check codes, scaling behavior}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } We study the scaling behavior of coupled sparse graph codes over the binary erasure channel. In particular, let 2L+1 be the length of the coupled chain, let M be the number of variables in each of the 2L+1 local copies, let ℓ be the number of iterations, let Pb denote the bit error probability, and let ∈ denote the channel parameter. We are interested in how these quantities scale when we let the blocklength (2L + 1)M tend to infinity. Based on empirical evidence we show that the threshold saturation phenomenon is rather stable with respect to the scaling of the various parameters and we formulate some general rules of thumb which can serve as a guide for the design of coding systems based on coupled graphs. |

## 2010 |

## Journal Articles |

Olmos, Pablo; Murillo-Fuentes, Juan Jose; Perez-Cruz, Fernando Joint Nonlinear Channel Equalization and Soft LDPC Decoding with Gaussian Processes (Journal Article) IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 58 (3), pp. 1183–1192, 2010, ISSN: 1053-587X. (Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Bayesian nonlinear classification tool, Bit error rate, Channel Coding, channel equalizers, Channel estimation, Coding, equalisers, equalization, error statistics, Gaussian processes, GPC, joint nonlinear channel equalization, low-density parity-check (LDPC), low-density parity-check channel decoder, Machine learning, nonlinear channel, nonlinear codes, parity check codes, posterior probability estimates, soft LDPC decoding, soft-decoding, support vector machine (SVM)) @article{Olmos2010a, title = {Joint Nonlinear Channel Equalization and Soft LDPC Decoding with Gaussian Processes}, author = {Olmos, Pablo M. and Murillo-Fuentes, Juan Jose and Perez-Cruz, Fernando}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=5290078}, issn = {1053-587X}, year = {2010}, date = {2010-01-01}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing}, volume = {58}, number = {3}, pages = {1183--1192}, abstract = {In this paper, we introduce a new approach for nonlinear equalization based on Gaussian processes for classification (GPC). We propose to measure the performance of this equalizer after a low-density parity-check channel decoder has detected the received sequence. Typically, most channel equalizers concentrate on reducing the bit error rate, instead of providing accurate posterior probability estimates. We show that the accuracy of these estimates is essential for optimal performance of the channel decoder and that the error rate output by the equalizer might be irrelevant to understand the performance of the overall communication receiver. In this sense, GPC is a Bayesian nonlinear classification tool that provides accurate posterior probability estimates with short training sequences. In the experimental section, we compare the proposed GPC-based equalizer with state-of-the-art solutions to illustrate its improved performance.}, keywords = {Bayesian nonlinear classification tool, Bit error rate, Channel Coding, channel equalizers, Channel estimation, Coding, equalisers, equalization, error statistics, Gaussian processes, GPC, joint nonlinear channel equalization, low-density parity-check (LDPC), low-density parity-check channel decoder, Machine learning, nonlinear channel, nonlinear codes, parity check codes, posterior probability estimates, soft LDPC decoding, soft-decoding, support vector machine (SVM)}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } In this paper, we introduce a new approach for nonlinear equalization based on Gaussian processes for classification (GPC). We propose to measure the performance of this equalizer after a low-density parity-check channel decoder has detected the received sequence. Typically, most channel equalizers concentrate on reducing the bit error rate, instead of providing accurate posterior probability estimates. We show that the accuracy of these estimates is essential for optimal performance of the channel decoder and that the error rate output by the equalizer might be irrelevant to understand the performance of the overall communication receiver. In this sense, GPC is a Bayesian nonlinear classification tool that provides accurate posterior probability estimates with short training sequences. In the experimental section, we compare the proposed GPC-based equalizer with state-of-the-art solutions to illustrate its improved performance. |

## Inproceedings |

Vazquez, Manuel; Miguez, Joaquin Adaptive MLSD for MIMO Transmission Systems with Unknown Subchannel Orders (Inproceeding) 2010 7th International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems, pp. 451–455, IEEE, York, 2010, ISSN: 2154-0217. (Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Bit error rate, Channel estimation, channel impulse response, computational complexity, Estimation, frequency-selective multiple-input multiple-output, maximum likelihood sequence detection, maximum likelihood sequence estimation, MIMO, MIMO communication, MIMO transmission systems, multiple subchannels, per survivor processing methodology, pilot data, Receivers, Signal to noise ratio, Time frequency analysis, time selective MIMO channel) @inproceedings{Vazquez2010, title = {Adaptive MLSD for MIMO Transmission Systems with Unknown Subchannel Orders}, author = {Vazquez, Manuel A. and Miguez, Joaquin}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=5624335}, issn = {2154-0217}, year = {2010}, date = {2010-01-01}, booktitle = {2010 7th International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems}, pages = {451--455}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {York}, abstract = {In the equalization of frequency-selective multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels it is usually assumed that the length of the channel impulse response (CIR), also referred to as the channel order, is known. However, this is not true in most practical situations and, in order to avoid the serious performance degradation that occurs when the CIR length is underestimated, a channel with "more than enough" taps is usually considered. This very frequently leads to overestimating the channel order, which increases the computational complexity of any maximum likelihood sequence detection (MLSD) algorithm, while degrading its performance at the same time. The problem of estimating a single channel order for a time and frequency selective MIMO channel has recently been tackled. However, this is an idealized approach, since a MIMO channel comprises multiple subchannels (as many as the number of inputs times that of the outputs), each of them possibly with its own order. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm for MLSD that incorporates the full estimation of the MIMO CIR parameters, including one channel order per output. The proposed technique is based on the per survivor processing (PSP) methodology, it admits both blind and semiblind implementations, depending on the availability of pilot data, and it is designed to work with time-selective channels. Besides the analytical derivation of the algorithm, we provide computer simulation results that illustrate the effectiveness of the resulting receiver.}, keywords = {Bit error rate, Channel estimation, channel impulse response, computational complexity, Estimation, frequency-selective multiple-input multiple-output, maximum likelihood sequence detection, maximum likelihood sequence estimation, MIMO, MIMO communication, MIMO transmission systems, multiple subchannels, per survivor processing methodology, pilot data, Receivers, Signal to noise ratio, Time frequency analysis, time selective MIMO channel}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } In the equalization of frequency-selective multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels it is usually assumed that the length of the channel impulse response (CIR), also referred to as the channel order, is known. However, this is not true in most practical situations and, in order to avoid the serious performance degradation that occurs when the CIR length is underestimated, a channel with "more than enough" taps is usually considered. This very frequently leads to overestimating the channel order, which increases the computational complexity of any maximum likelihood sequence detection (MLSD) algorithm, while degrading its performance at the same time. The problem of estimating a single channel order for a time and frequency selective MIMO channel has recently been tackled. However, this is an idealized approach, since a MIMO channel comprises multiple subchannels (as many as the number of inputs times that of the outputs), each of them possibly with its own order. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm for MLSD that incorporates the full estimation of the MIMO CIR parameters, including one channel order per output. The proposed technique is based on the per survivor processing (PSP) methodology, it admits both blind and semiblind implementations, depending on the availability of pilot data, and it is designed to work with time-selective channels. Besides the analytical derivation of the algorithm, we provide computer simulation results that illustrate the effectiveness of the resulting receiver. |

Salamanca, Luis; Jose Murillo-Fuentes, Juan; Perez-Cruz, Fernando Bayesian BCJR for Channel Equalization and Decoding (Inproceeding) 2010 IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing, pp. 53–58, IEEE, Kittila, 2010, ISSN: 1551-2541. (Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: a posteriori probability, Bayes methods, Bayesian BCJR, Bayesian methods, Bit error rate, channel decoding, channel estate information, Channel estimation, Decoding, digital communication, digital communications, equalisers, Equalizers, error statistics, Markov processes, Maximum likelihood decoding, maximum likelihood estimation, multipath channel, probabilistic channel equalization, Probability, single input single output model, SISO model, statistical information, Training) @inproceedings{Salamanca2010, title = {Bayesian BCJR for Channel Equalization and Decoding}, author = {Salamanca, Luis and Jose Murillo-Fuentes, Juan and Perez-Cruz, Fernando}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=5589201}, issn = {1551-2541}, year = {2010}, date = {2010-01-01}, booktitle = {2010 IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing}, pages = {53--58}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Kittila}, abstract = {In this paper we focus on the probabilistic channel equalization in digital communications. We face the single input single output (SISO) model to show how the statistical information about the multipath channel can be exploited to further improve our estimation of the a posteriori probabilities (APP) during the equalization process. We consider not only the uncertainty due to the noise in the channel, but also in the estimate of the channel estate information (CSI). Thus, we resort to a Bayesian approach for the computation of the APP. This novel algorithm has the same complexity as the BCJR, exhibiting lower bit error rate at the output of the channel decoder than the standard BCJR that considers maximum likelihood (ML) to estimate the CSI.}, keywords = {a posteriori probability, Bayes methods, Bayesian BCJR, Bayesian methods, Bit error rate, channel decoding, channel estate information, Channel estimation, Decoding, digital communication, digital communications, equalisers, Equalizers, error statistics, Markov processes, Maximum likelihood decoding, maximum likelihood estimation, multipath channel, probabilistic channel equalization, Probability, single input single output model, SISO model, statistical information, Training}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } In this paper we focus on the probabilistic channel equalization in digital communications. We face the single input single output (SISO) model to show how the statistical information about the multipath channel can be exploited to further improve our estimation of the a posteriori probabilities (APP) during the equalization process. We consider not only the uncertainty due to the noise in the channel, but also in the estimate of the channel estate information (CSI). Thus, we resort to a Bayesian approach for the computation of the APP. This novel algorithm has the same complexity as the BCJR, exhibiting lower bit error rate at the output of the channel decoder than the standard BCJR that considers maximum likelihood (ML) to estimate the CSI. |

Salamanca, Luis; Murillo-Fuentes, Juan Jose; Perez-Cruz, Fernando Channel Decoding with a Bayesian Equalizer (Inproceeding) 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, pp. 1998–2002, IEEE, Austin, TX, 2010, ISBN: 978-1-4244-7892-7. (Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: a posteriori probability, Bayesian equalizer, Bayesian methods, BER, Bit error rate, Channel Coding, channel decoding, channel estate information, Communication channels, Decoding, equalisers, Equalizers, error statistics, low-density parity-check decoders, LPDC decoders, Maximum likelihood decoding, maximum likelihood detection, maximum likelihood estimation, Noise reduction, parity check codes, Probability, Uncertainty) @inproceedings{Salamanca2010a, title = {Channel Decoding with a Bayesian Equalizer}, author = {Salamanca, Luis and Murillo-Fuentes, Juan Jose and Perez-Cruz, Fernando}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=5513348}, isbn = {978-1-4244-7892-7}, year = {2010}, date = {2010-01-01}, booktitle = {2010 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory}, pages = {1998--2002}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Austin, TX}, abstract = {Low-density parity-check (LPDC) decoders assume the channel estate information (CSI) is known and they have the true a posteriori probability (APP) for each transmitted bit. But in most cases of interest, the CSI needs to be estimated with the help of a short training sequence and the LDPC decoder has to decode the received word using faulty APP estimates. In this paper, we study the uncertainty in the CSI estimate and how it affects the bit error rate (BER) output by the LDPC decoder. To improve these APP estimates, we propose a Bayesian equalizer that takes into consideration not only the uncertainty due to the noise in the channel, but also the uncertainty in the CSI estimate, reducing the BER after the LDPC decoder.}, keywords = {a posteriori probability, Bayesian equalizer, Bayesian methods, BER, Bit error rate, Channel Coding, channel decoding, channel estate information, Communication channels, Decoding, equalisers, Equalizers, error statistics, low-density parity-check decoders, LPDC decoders, Maximum likelihood decoding, maximum likelihood detection, maximum likelihood estimation, Noise reduction, parity check codes, Probability, Uncertainty}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } Low-density parity-check (LPDC) decoders assume the channel estate information (CSI) is known and they have the true a posteriori probability (APP) for each transmitted bit. But in most cases of interest, the CSI needs to be estimated with the help of a short training sequence and the LDPC decoder has to decode the received word using faulty APP estimates. In this paper, we study the uncertainty in the CSI estimate and how it affects the bit error rate (BER) output by the LDPC decoder. To improve these APP estimates, we propose a Bayesian equalizer that takes into consideration not only the uncertainty due to the noise in the channel, but also the uncertainty in the CSI estimate, reducing the BER after the LDPC decoder. |

## 2009 |

## Inproceedings |

Bravo-Santos, Ángel; Djuric, Petar Cooperative Relay Communications in Mesh Networks (Inproceeding) 2009 IEEE 10th Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications, pp. 499–503, IEEE, Perugia, 2009, ISBN: 978-1-4244-3695-8. (Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: binary transmission, bit error probability, Bit error rate, cooperative relay communications, decode-and-forward relays, Detectors, error statistics, Maximum likelihood decoding, maximum likelihood detection, Mesh networks, mesh wireless networks, multi-hop networks, Network topology, optimal node decision rules, Peer to peer computing, radio networks, Relays, spread spectrum communication, telecommunication network topology, Wireless Sensor Networks) @inproceedings{Bravo-Santos2009, title = {Cooperative Relay Communications in Mesh Networks}, author = {Bravo-Santos, Ángel M. and Djuric, Petar M.}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=5161835}, isbn = {978-1-4244-3695-8}, year = {2009}, date = {2009-01-01}, booktitle = {2009 IEEE 10th Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications}, pages = {499--503}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Perugia}, abstract = {In previous literature on cooperative relay communications, the emphasis has been on the study of multi-hop networks. In this paper we address mesh wireless networks that use decode-and-forward relays for which we derive the optimal node decision rules in case of binary transmission. We also obtain the expression for the overall bit error probability. We compare the mesh networks with multi-hop networks and show the improvement in performance that can be achieved with them when both networks have the same number of nodes and equal number of hops.}, keywords = {binary transmission, bit error probability, Bit error rate, cooperative relay communications, decode-and-forward relays, Detectors, error statistics, Maximum likelihood decoding, maximum likelihood detection, Mesh networks, mesh wireless networks, multi-hop networks, Network topology, optimal node decision rules, Peer to peer computing, radio networks, Relays, spread spectrum communication, telecommunication network topology, Wireless Sensor Networks}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } In previous literature on cooperative relay communications, the emphasis has been on the study of multi-hop networks. In this paper we address mesh wireless networks that use decode-and-forward relays for which we derive the optimal node decision rules in case of binary transmission. We also obtain the expression for the overall bit error probability. We compare the mesh networks with multi-hop networks and show the improvement in performance that can be achieved with them when both networks have the same number of nodes and equal number of hops. |

## 2008 |

## Inproceedings |

Perez-Cruz, Fernando; Rodrigues, Miguel; Verdu, Sergio Optimal Precoding for Digital Subscriber Lines (Inproceeding) 2008 IEEE International Conference on Communications, pp. 1200–1204, IEEE, Beijing, 2008, ISBN: 978-1-4244-2075-9. (Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Bit error rate, channel matrix diagonalization, Communications Society, Computer science, digital subscriber lines, DSL, Equations, fixed-point equation, Gaussian channels, least mean squares methods, linear codes, matrix algebra, MIMO, MIMO communication, MIMO Gaussian channel, minimum mean squared error method, MMSE, multiple-input multiple-output communication, Mutual information, optimal linear precoder, precoding, Telecommunications, Telephony) @inproceedings{Perez-Cruz2008a, title = {Optimal Precoding for Digital Subscriber Lines}, author = {Perez-Cruz, Fernando and Rodrigues, Miguel R. D. and Verdu, Sergio}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=4533270}, isbn = {978-1-4244-2075-9}, year = {2008}, date = {2008-01-01}, booktitle = {2008 IEEE International Conference on Communications}, pages = {1200--1204}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Beijing}, abstract = {We determine the linear precoding policy that maximizes the mutual information for general multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian channels with arbitrary input distributions, by capitalizing on the relationship between mutual information and minimum mean squared error (MMSE). The optimal linear precoder can be computed by means of a fixed- point equation as a function of the channel and the input constellation. We show that diagonalizing the channel matrix does not maximize the information transmission rate for nonGaussian inputs. A full precoding matrix may significantly increase the information transmission rate, even for parallel non-interacting channels. We illustrate the application of our results to typical Gigabit DSL systems.}, keywords = {Bit error rate, channel matrix diagonalization, Communications Society, Computer science, digital subscriber lines, DSL, Equations, fixed-point equation, Gaussian channels, least mean squares methods, linear codes, matrix algebra, MIMO, MIMO communication, MIMO Gaussian channel, minimum mean squared error method, MMSE, multiple-input multiple-output communication, Mutual information, optimal linear precoder, precoding, Telecommunications, Telephony}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } We determine the linear precoding policy that maximizes the mutual information for general multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian channels with arbitrary input distributions, by capitalizing on the relationship between mutual information and minimum mean squared error (MMSE). The optimal linear precoder can be computed by means of a fixed- point equation as a function of the channel and the input constellation. We show that diagonalizing the channel matrix does not maximize the information transmission rate for nonGaussian inputs. A full precoding matrix may significantly increase the information transmission rate, even for parallel non-interacting channels. We illustrate the application of our results to typical Gigabit DSL systems. |