@article{Alvarado2014,
title = {High-SNR Asymptotics of Mutual Information for Discrete Constellations With Applications to BICM},
author = {Alvarado, Alex and Brannstrom, Fredrik and Agrell, Erik and Koch, Tobias},
url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6671479
http://www.tsc.uc3m.es/~koch/files/IEEE_TIT_60%282%29.pdf},
issn = {0018-9448},
year = {2014},
date = {2014-01-01},
journal = {IEEE Transactions on Information Theory},
volume = {60},
number = {2},
pages = {1061--1076},
abstract = {Asymptotic expressions of the mutual information between any discrete input and the corresponding output of the scalar additive white Gaussian noise channel are presented in the limit as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) tends to infinity. Asymptotic expressions of the symbol-error probability (SEP) and the minimum mean-square error (MMSE) achieved by estimating the channel input given the channel output are also developed. It is shown that for any input distribution, the conditional entropy of the channel input given the output, MMSE, and SEP have an asymptotic behavior proportional to the Gaussian Q-function. The argument of the Q-function depends only on the minimum Euclidean distance (MED) of the constellation and the SNR, and the proportionality constants are functions of the MED and the probabilities of the pairs of constellation points at MED. The developed expressions are then generalized to study the high-SNR behavior of the generalized mutual information (GMI) for bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM). By means of these asymptotic expressions, the long-standing conjecture that Gray codes are the binary labelings that maximize the BICM-GMI at high SNR is proven. It is further shown that for any equally spaced constellation whose size is a power of two, there always exists an anti-Gray code giving the lowest BICM-GMI at high SNR.},
keywords = {additive white Gaussian noise channel, Anti-Gray code, bit-interleaved coded modulation, discrete constellations, Entropy, Gray code, high-SNR asymptotics, IP networks, Labeling, minimum-mean square error, Modulation, Mutual information, Signal to noise ratio, Vectors},
pubstate = {published},
tppubtype = {article}
}

Asymptotic expressions of the mutual information between any discrete input and the corresponding output of the scalar additive white Gaussian noise channel are presented in the limit as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) tends to infinity. Asymptotic expressions of the symbol-error probability (SEP) and the minimum mean-square error (MMSE) achieved by estimating the channel input given the channel output are also developed. It is shown that for any input distribution, the conditional entropy of the channel input given the output, MMSE, and SEP have an asymptotic behavior proportional to the Gaussian Q-function. The argument of the Q-function depends only on the minimum Euclidean distance (MED) of the constellation and the SNR, and the proportionality constants are functions of the MED and the probabilities of the pairs of constellation points at MED. The developed expressions are then generalized to study the high-SNR behavior of the generalized mutual information (GMI) for bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM). By means of these asymptotic expressions, the long-standing conjecture that Gray codes are the binary labelings that maximize the BICM-GMI at high SNR is proven. It is further shown that for any equally spaced constellation whose size is a power of two, there always exists an anti-Gray code giving the lowest BICM-GMI at high SNR.

@inproceedings{Salamanca2012,
title = {Tree-Structured Expectation Propagation for LDPC Decoding over the AWGN Channel},
author = {Salamanca, Luis and Murillo-Fuentes, Juan Jose and Olmos, Pablo M. and Perez-Cruz, Fernando},
url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6349716},
issn = {1551-2541},
year = {2012},
date = {2012-01-01},
booktitle = {2012 IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing},
pages = {1--6},
publisher = {IEEE},
address = {Santander},
abstract = {In this paper, we propose the tree-structured expectation propagation (TEP) algorithm for low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoding over the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. By imposing a tree-like approximation over the graphical model of the code, this algorithm introduces pairwise marginal constraints over pairs of variables, which provide joint information of the variables related. Thanks to this, the proposed TEP decoder improves the performance of the standard belief propagation (BP) solution. An efficient way of constructing the tree-like structure is also described. The simulation results illustrate the TEP decoder gain in the finite-length regime, compared to the standard BP solution. For code lengths shorter than n = 512, the gain in the waterfall region achieves up to 0.25 dB. We also notice a remarkable reduction of the error floor.},
keywords = {additive white Gaussian noise channel, Approximation algorithms, Approximation methods, approximation theory, AWGN channel, AWGN channels, belief propagation solution, Bit error rate, Decoding, error floor reduction, finite-length regime, Gain, Joints, LDPC decoding, low-density parity-check decoding, pairwise marginal constraint, parity check codes, TEP decoder, tree-like approximation, tree-structured expectation propagation, trees (mathematics)},
pubstate = {published},
tppubtype = {inproceedings}
}

In this paper, we propose the tree-structured expectation propagation (TEP) algorithm for low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoding over the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. By imposing a tree-like approximation over the graphical model of the code, this algorithm introduces pairwise marginal constraints over pairs of variables, which provide joint information of the variables related. Thanks to this, the proposed TEP decoder improves the performance of the standard belief propagation (BP) solution. An efficient way of constructing the tree-like structure is also described. The simulation results illustrate the TEP decoder gain in the finite-length regime, compared to the standard BP solution. For code lengths shorter than n = 512, the gain in the waterfall region achieves up to 0.25 dB. We also notice a remarkable reduction of the error floor.