## 2012 |

## Journal Articles |

Salamanca, Luis; Murillo-Fuentes, Juan Jose; Perez-Cruz, Fernando Bayesian Equalization for LDPC Channel Decoding Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 60 (5), pp. 2672–2676, 2012, ISSN: 1053-587X. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Approximation methods, Bayes methods, Bayesian equalization, Bayesian estimation problem, Bayesian inference, Bayesian methods, BCJR (Bahl–Cocke–Jelinek–Raviv) algorithm, BCJR algorithm, Channel Coding, channel decoding, channel equalization, channel equalization problem, Channel estimation, channel state information, CSI, Decoding, equalisers, Equalizers, expectation propagation, expectation propagation algorithm, fading channels, graphical model representation, intersymbol interference, Kullback-Leibler divergence, LDPC, LDPC coding, low-density parity-check decoder, Modulation, parity check codes, symbol posterior estimates, Training @article{Salamanca2012b, title = {Bayesian Equalization for LDPC Channel Decoding}, author = {Luis Salamanca and Juan Jose Murillo-Fuentes and Fernando Perez-Cruz}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6129544}, issn = {1053-587X}, year = {2012}, date = {2012-01-01}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing}, volume = {60}, number = {5}, pages = {2672--2676}, abstract = {We describe the channel equalization problem, and its prior estimate of the channel state information (CSI), as a joint Bayesian estimation problem to improve each symbol posterior estimates at the input of the channel decoder. Our approach takes into consideration not only the uncertainty due to the noise in the channel, but also the uncertainty in the CSI estimate. However, this solution cannot be computed in linear time, because it depends on all the transmitted symbols. Hence, we also put forward an approximation for each symbol's posterior, using the expectation propagation algorithm, which is optimal from the Kullback-Leibler divergence viewpoint and yields an equalization with a complexity identical to the BCJR algorithm. We also use a graphical model representation of the full posterior, in which the proposed approximation can be readily understood. The proposed posterior estimates are more accurate than those computed using the ML estimate for the CSI. In order to illustrate this point, we measure the error rate at the output of a low-density parity-check decoder, which needs the exact posterior for each symbol to detect the incoming word and it is sensitive to a mismatch in those posterior estimates. For example, for QPSK modulation and a channel with three taps, we can expect gains over 0.5 dB with same computational complexity as the ML receiver.}, keywords = {Approximation methods, Bayes methods, Bayesian equalization, Bayesian estimation problem, Bayesian inference, Bayesian methods, BCJR (Bahl–Cocke–Jelinek–Raviv) algorithm, BCJR algorithm, Channel Coding, channel decoding, channel equalization, channel equalization problem, Channel estimation, channel state information, CSI, Decoding, equalisers, Equalizers, expectation propagation, expectation propagation algorithm, fading channels, graphical model representation, intersymbol interference, Kullback-Leibler divergence, LDPC, LDPC coding, low-density parity-check decoder, Modulation, parity check codes, symbol posterior estimates, Training}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } We describe the channel equalization problem, and its prior estimate of the channel state information (CSI), as a joint Bayesian estimation problem to improve each symbol posterior estimates at the input of the channel decoder. Our approach takes into consideration not only the uncertainty due to the noise in the channel, but also the uncertainty in the CSI estimate. However, this solution cannot be computed in linear time, because it depends on all the transmitted symbols. Hence, we also put forward an approximation for each symbol's posterior, using the expectation propagation algorithm, which is optimal from the Kullback-Leibler divergence viewpoint and yields an equalization with a complexity identical to the BCJR algorithm. We also use a graphical model representation of the full posterior, in which the proposed approximation can be readily understood. The proposed posterior estimates are more accurate than those computed using the ML estimate for the CSI. In order to illustrate this point, we measure the error rate at the output of a low-density parity-check decoder, which needs the exact posterior for each symbol to detect the incoming word and it is sensitive to a mismatch in those posterior estimates. For example, for QPSK modulation and a channel with three taps, we can expect gains over 0.5 dB with same computational complexity as the ML receiver. |

## 2008 |

## Inproceedings |

Rodrigues, Miguel R D; Perez-Cruz, Fernando; Verdu, Sergio Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Gaussian Channels: Optimal Covariance for Non-Gaussian Inputs Inproceedings 2008 IEEE Information Theory Workshop, pp. 445–449, IEEE, Porto, 2008, ISBN: 978-1-4244-2269-2. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Binary phase shift keying, covariance matrices, Covariance matrix, deterministic MIMO Gaussian channel, fixed-point equation, Gaussian channels, Gaussian noise, Information rates, intersymbol interference, least mean squares methods, Magnetic recording, mercury-waterfilling power allocation policy, MIMO, MIMO communication, minimum mean-squared error, MMSE, MMSE matrix, multiple-input multiple-output system, Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Systems, Mutual information, Optimal Input Covariance, Optimization, Telecommunications @inproceedings{Rodrigues2008, title = {Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Gaussian Channels: Optimal Covariance for Non-Gaussian Inputs}, author = {Miguel R D Rodrigues and Fernando Perez-Cruz and Sergio Verdu}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=4578704}, isbn = {978-1-4244-2269-2}, year = {2008}, date = {2008-01-01}, booktitle = {2008 IEEE Information Theory Workshop}, pages = {445--449}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Porto}, abstract = {We investigate the input covariance that maximizes the mutual information of deterministic multiple-input multipleo-utput (MIMO) Gaussian channels with arbitrary (not necessarily Gaussian) input distributions, by capitalizing on the relationship between the gradient of the mutual information and the minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) matrix. We show that the optimal input covariance satisfies a simple fixed-point equation involving key system quantities, including the MMSE matrix. We also specialize the form of the optimal input covariance to the asymptotic regimes of low and high snr. We demonstrate that in the low-snr regime the optimal covariance fully correlates the inputs to better combat noise. In contrast, in the high-snr regime the optimal covariance is diagonal with diagonal elements obeying the generalized mercury/waterfilling power allocation policy. Numerical results illustrate that covariance optimization may lead to significant gains with respect to conventional strategies based on channel diagonalization followed by mercury/waterfilling or waterfilling power allocation, particularly in the regimes of medium and high snr.}, keywords = {Binary phase shift keying, covariance matrices, Covariance matrix, deterministic MIMO Gaussian channel, fixed-point equation, Gaussian channels, Gaussian noise, Information rates, intersymbol interference, least mean squares methods, Magnetic recording, mercury-waterfilling power allocation policy, MIMO, MIMO communication, minimum mean-squared error, MMSE, MMSE matrix, multiple-input multiple-output system, Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Systems, Mutual information, Optimal Input Covariance, Optimization, Telecommunications}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } We investigate the input covariance that maximizes the mutual information of deterministic multiple-input multipleo-utput (MIMO) Gaussian channels with arbitrary (not necessarily Gaussian) input distributions, by capitalizing on the relationship between the gradient of the mutual information and the minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) matrix. We show that the optimal input covariance satisfies a simple fixed-point equation involving key system quantities, including the MMSE matrix. We also specialize the form of the optimal input covariance to the asymptotic regimes of low and high snr. We demonstrate that in the low-snr regime the optimal covariance fully correlates the inputs to better combat noise. In contrast, in the high-snr regime the optimal covariance is diagonal with diagonal elements obeying the generalized mercury/waterfilling power allocation policy. Numerical results illustrate that covariance optimization may lead to significant gains with respect to conventional strategies based on channel diagonalization followed by mercury/waterfilling or waterfilling power allocation, particularly in the regimes of medium and high snr. |