## 2014 |

## Journal Articles |

Read, Jesse ; Achutegui, Katrin ; Miguez, Joaquin A Distributed Particle Filter for Nonlinear Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks Journal Article Signal Processing, 98 , pp. 121–134, 2014. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Distributed filtering, Target tracking, Wireless sensor network @article{Read2014b, title = {A Distributed Particle Filter for Nonlinear Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks}, author = {Read, Jesse and Achutegui, Katrin and Miguez, Joaquin}, url = {http://www.tsc.uc3m.es/~jmiguez/papers/P40_2014_A Distributed Particle Filter for Nonlinear Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks.pdf http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165168413004568}, year = {2014}, date = {2014-01-01}, journal = {Signal Processing}, volume = {98}, pages = {121--134}, abstract = {The use of distributed particle filters for tracking in sensor networks has become popular in recent years. The distributed particle filters proposed in the literature up to now are only approximations of the centralized particle filter or, if they are a proper distributed version of the particle filter, their implementation in a wireless sensor network demands a prohibitive communication capability. In this work, we propose a mathematically sound distributed particle filter for tracking in a real-world indoor wireless sensor network composed of low-power nodes. We provide formal and general descriptions of our methodology and then present the results of both real-world experiments and/or computer simulations that use models fitted with real data. With the same number of particles as a centralized filter, the distributed algorithm is over four times faster, yet our simulations show that, even assuming the same processing speed, the accuracy of the centralized and distributed algorithms is practically identical. The main limitation of the proposed scheme is the need to make all the sensor observations available to every processing node. Therefore, it is better suited to broadcast networks or multihop networks where the volume of generated data is kept low, e.g., by an adequate local pre-processing of the observations.}, keywords = {Distributed filtering, Target tracking, Wireless sensor network}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } The use of distributed particle filters for tracking in sensor networks has become popular in recent years. The distributed particle filters proposed in the literature up to now are only approximations of the centralized particle filter or, if they are a proper distributed version of the particle filter, their implementation in a wireless sensor network demands a prohibitive communication capability. In this work, we propose a mathematically sound distributed particle filter for tracking in a real-world indoor wireless sensor network composed of low-power nodes. We provide formal and general descriptions of our methodology and then present the results of both real-world experiments and/or computer simulations that use models fitted with real data. With the same number of particles as a centralized filter, the distributed algorithm is over four times faster, yet our simulations show that, even assuming the same processing speed, the accuracy of the centralized and distributed algorithms is practically identical. The main limitation of the proposed scheme is the need to make all the sensor observations available to every processing node. Therefore, it is better suited to broadcast networks or multihop networks where the volume of generated data is kept low, e.g., by an adequate local pre-processing of the observations. |

## 2012 |

## Journal Articles |

Maiz, Cristina S; Molanes-Lopez, Elisa M; Miguez, Joaquin ; Djuric, Petar M A Particle Filtering Scheme for Processing Time Series Corrupted by Outliers Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 60 (9), pp. 4611–4627, 2012, ISSN: 1053-587X. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Kalman filters, Mathematical model, nonlinear state space model, Outlier detection, prediction theory, predictive distribution, Probability density function, State-space methods, state-space models, statistical distributions, Target tracking, time serie processing, Vectors, Yttrium @article{Maiz2012, title = {A Particle Filtering Scheme for Processing Time Series Corrupted by Outliers}, author = {Maiz, Cristina S. and Molanes-Lopez, Elisa M. and Miguez, Joaquin and Djuric, Petar M.}, url = {http://www.tsc.uc3m.es/~jmiguez/papers/P34_2012_A Particle Filtering Scheme for Processing Time Series Corrupted by Outliers.pdf http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6203606}, issn = {1053-587X}, year = {2012}, date = {2012-01-01}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing}, volume = {60}, number = {9}, pages = {4611--4627}, abstract = {The literature in engineering and statistics is abounding in techniques for detecting and properly processing anomalous observations in the data. Most of these techniques have been developed in the framework of static models and it is only in recent years that we have seen attempts that address the presence of outliers in nonlinear time series. For a target tracking problem described by a nonlinear state-space model, we propose the online detection of outliers by including an outlier detection step within the standard particle filtering algorithm. The outlier detection step is implemented by a test involving a statistic of the predictive distribution of the observations, such as a concentration measure or an extreme upper quantile. We also provide asymptotic results about the convergence of the particle approximations of the predictive distribution (and its statistics) and assess the performance of the resulting algorithms by computer simulations of target tracking problems with signal power observations.}, keywords = {Kalman filters, Mathematical model, nonlinear state space model, Outlier detection, prediction theory, predictive distribution, Probability density function, State-space methods, state-space models, statistical distributions, Target tracking, time serie processing, Vectors, Yttrium}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } The literature in engineering and statistics is abounding in techniques for detecting and properly processing anomalous observations in the data. Most of these techniques have been developed in the framework of static models and it is only in recent years that we have seen attempts that address the presence of outliers in nonlinear time series. For a target tracking problem described by a nonlinear state-space model, we propose the online detection of outliers by including an outlier detection step within the standard particle filtering algorithm. The outlier detection step is implemented by a test involving a statistic of the predictive distribution of the observations, such as a concentration measure or an extreme upper quantile. We also provide asymptotic results about the convergence of the particle approximations of the predictive distribution (and its statistics) and assess the performance of the resulting algorithms by computer simulations of target tracking problems with signal power observations. |

## 2009 |

## Inproceedings |

Maiz, Cristina S; Miguez, Joaquin ; Djuric, Petar M Particle Filtering in the Presence of Outliers Inproceedings 2009 IEEE/SP 15th Workshop on Statistical Signal Processing, pp. 33–36, IEEE, Cardiff, 2009, ISBN: 978-1-4244-2709-3. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: computer simulations, Degradation, Filtering, multidimensional random variates, Multidimensional signal processing, Multidimensional systems, Nonlinear tracking, Outlier detection, predictive distributions, Signal processing, signal processing tools, signal-power observations, spatial depth, statistical analysis, statistical distributions, statistics, Target tracking, Testing @inproceedings{Maiz2009, title = {Particle Filtering in the Presence of Outliers}, author = {Maiz, Cristina S. and Miguez, Joaquin and Djuric, Petar M.}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=5278645}, isbn = {978-1-4244-2709-3}, year = {2009}, date = {2009-01-01}, booktitle = {2009 IEEE/SP 15th Workshop on Statistical Signal Processing}, pages = {33--36}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Cardiff}, abstract = {Particle filters have become very popular signal processing tools for problems that involve nonlinear tracking of an unobserved signal of interest given a series of related observations. In this paper we propose a new scheme for particle filtering when the observed data are possibly contaminated with outliers. An outlier is an observation that has been generated by some (unknown) mechanism different from the assumed model of the data. Therefore, when handled in the same way as regular observations, outliers may drastically degrade the performance of the particle filter. To address this problem, we introduce an auxiliary particle filtering scheme that incorporates an outlier detection step. We propose to implement it by means of a test involving statistics of the predictive distributions of the observations. Specifically, we investigate the use of a proposed statistic called spatial depth that can easily be applied to multidimensional random variates. The performance of the resulting algorithm is assessed by computer simulations of target tracking based on signal-power observations.}, keywords = {computer simulations, Degradation, Filtering, multidimensional random variates, Multidimensional signal processing, Multidimensional systems, Nonlinear tracking, Outlier detection, predictive distributions, Signal processing, signal processing tools, signal-power observations, spatial depth, statistical analysis, statistical distributions, statistics, Target tracking, Testing}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } Particle filters have become very popular signal processing tools for problems that involve nonlinear tracking of an unobserved signal of interest given a series of related observations. In this paper we propose a new scheme for particle filtering when the observed data are possibly contaminated with outliers. An outlier is an observation that has been generated by some (unknown) mechanism different from the assumed model of the data. Therefore, when handled in the same way as regular observations, outliers may drastically degrade the performance of the particle filter. To address this problem, we introduce an auxiliary particle filtering scheme that incorporates an outlier detection step. We propose to implement it by means of a test involving statistics of the predictive distributions of the observations. Specifically, we investigate the use of a proposed statistic called spatial depth that can easily be applied to multidimensional random variates. The performance of the resulting algorithm is assessed by computer simulations of target tracking based on signal-power observations. |

Achutegui, Katrin ; Martino, Luca ; Rodas, Javier ; Escudero, Carlos J; Miguez, Joaquin A Multi-Model Particle Filtering Algorithm for Indoor Tracking of Mobile Terminals Using RSS Data Inproceedings 2009 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, pp. 1702–1707, IEEE, Saint Petersburg, 2009, ISBN: 978-1-4244-4601-8. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Bayesian methods, Control systems, Filtering algorithms, generalized interacting multiple model, GIMM, indoor radio, Indoor tracking, mobile radio, mobile terminal, Monte Carlo methods, multipath propagation, position-dependent data measurement, random process, random processes, Rao-Blackwellized sequential Monte Carlo tracking, received signal strength, RSS data, Sliding mode control, State-space methods, state-space model, Target tracking, tracking, transmitter-to-receiver distance, wireless network, wireless technology @inproceedings{Achutegui2009, title = {A Multi-Model Particle Filtering Algorithm for Indoor Tracking of Mobile Terminals Using RSS Data}, author = {Achutegui, Katrin and Martino, Luca and Rodas, Javier and Escudero, Carlos J. and Miguez, Joaquin}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=5280960}, isbn = {978-1-4244-4601-8}, year = {2009}, date = {2009-01-01}, booktitle = {2009 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications}, pages = {1702--1707}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Saint Petersburg}, abstract = {In this paper we address the problem of indoor tracking using received signal strength (RSS) as a position-dependent data measurement. This type of measurements is very appealing because they can be easily obtained with a variety of wireless technologies which are relatively inexpensive. The extraction of accurate location information from RSS in indoor scenarios is not an easy task, though. Since RSS is highly influenced by multipath propagation, it turns out very hard to adequately model the correspondence between the received power and the transmitter-to-receiver distance. The measurement models proposed in the literature are site-specific and require a great deal of information regarding the structure of the building where the tracking will be performed and therefore are not useful for a general application. For that reason we propose the use of a compound model that combines several sub-models, whose parameters are adjusted to specific and different propagation environments. This methodology, is called interacting multiple models (IMM), has been used in the past for modeling the motion of maneuvering targets. Here, we extend its application to handle also the uncertainty in the RSS observations and we refer to the resulting state-space model as a generalized IMM (GIMM) system. The flexibility of the GIMM approach is attained at the expense of an increase in the number of random processes that must be accurately tracked. To overcome this difficulty, we introduce a Rao-Blackwellized sequential Monte Carlo tracking algorithm that exhibits good performance both with synthetic and experimental data.}, keywords = {Bayesian methods, Control systems, Filtering algorithms, generalized interacting multiple model, GIMM, indoor radio, Indoor tracking, mobile radio, mobile terminal, Monte Carlo methods, multipath propagation, position-dependent data measurement, random process, random processes, Rao-Blackwellized sequential Monte Carlo tracking, received signal strength, RSS data, Sliding mode control, State-space methods, state-space model, Target tracking, tracking, transmitter-to-receiver distance, wireless network, wireless technology}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } In this paper we address the problem of indoor tracking using received signal strength (RSS) as a position-dependent data measurement. This type of measurements is very appealing because they can be easily obtained with a variety of wireless technologies which are relatively inexpensive. The extraction of accurate location information from RSS in indoor scenarios is not an easy task, though. Since RSS is highly influenced by multipath propagation, it turns out very hard to adequately model the correspondence between the received power and the transmitter-to-receiver distance. The measurement models proposed in the literature are site-specific and require a great deal of information regarding the structure of the building where the tracking will be performed and therefore are not useful for a general application. For that reason we propose the use of a compound model that combines several sub-models, whose parameters are adjusted to specific and different propagation environments. This methodology, is called interacting multiple models (IMM), has been used in the past for modeling the motion of maneuvering targets. Here, we extend its application to handle also the uncertainty in the RSS observations and we refer to the resulting state-space model as a generalized IMM (GIMM) system. The flexibility of the GIMM approach is attained at the expense of an increase in the number of random processes that must be accurately tracked. To overcome this difficulty, we introduce a Rao-Blackwellized sequential Monte Carlo tracking algorithm that exhibits good performance both with synthetic and experimental data. |