## 2014 |

## Journal Articles |

A, Pastore; Koch, Tobias; Fonollosa, Javier Rodriguez A Rate-Splitting Approach to Fading Channels With Imperfect Channel-State Information Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 60 (7), pp. 4266–4285, 2014, ISSN: 0018-9448. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: channel capacity, COMONSENS, DEIPRO, Entropy, Fading, fading channels, flat fading, imperfect channel-state information, MobileNET, Mutual information, OTOSiS, Random variables, Receivers, Signal to noise ratio, Upper bound @article{Pastore2014a, title = {A Rate-Splitting Approach to Fading Channels With Imperfect Channel-State Information}, author = {Pastore A and Tobias Koch and Javier Rodriguez Fonollosa}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6832779 http://www.tsc.uc3m.es/~koch/files/IEEE_TIT_60(7).pdf http://arxiv.org/pdf/1301.6120.pdf}, issn = {0018-9448}, year = {2014}, date = {2014-01-01}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Information Theory}, volume = {60}, number = {7}, pages = {4266--4285}, publisher = {IEEE}, abstract = {As shown by Médard, the capacity of fading channels with imperfect channel-state information can be lower-bounded by assuming a Gaussian channel input (X) with power (P) and by upper-bounding the conditional entropy (h(X|Y,hat Ħ)) by the entropy of a Gaussian random variable with variance equal to the linear minimum mean-square error in estimating (X) from ((Y,hat Ħ)) . We demonstrate that, using a rate-splitting approach, this lower bound can be sharpened: by expressing the Gaussian input (X) as the sum of two independent Gaussian variables (X_1) and (X_2) and by applying Médard's lower bound first to bound the mutual information between (X_1) and (Y) while treating (X_2) as noise, and by applying it a second time to the mutual information between (X_2) and (Y) while assuming (X_1) to be known, we obtain a capacity lower bound that is strictly larger than Médard's lower bound. We then generalize this approach to an arbi- rary number (L) of layers, where (X) is expressed as the sum of (L) independent Gaussian random variables of respective variances (P_ell ) , (ell = 1,dotsc ,L) summing up to (P) . Among all such rate-splitting bounds, we determine the supremum over power allocations (P_ell ) and total number of layers (L) . This supremum is achieved for (L rightarrow infty ) and gives rise to an analytically expressible capacity lower bound. For Gaussian fading, this novel bound is shown to converge to the Gaussian-input mutual information as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) grows, provided that the variance of the channel estimation error (H-hat Ħ) tends to zero as the SNR tends to infinity.}, keywords = {channel capacity, COMONSENS, DEIPRO, Entropy, Fading, fading channels, flat fading, imperfect channel-state information, MobileNET, Mutual information, OTOSiS, Random variables, Receivers, Signal to noise ratio, Upper bound}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } As shown by Médard, the capacity of fading channels with imperfect channel-state information can be lower-bounded by assuming a Gaussian channel input (X) with power (P) and by upper-bounding the conditional entropy (h(X|Y,hat Ħ)) by the entropy of a Gaussian random variable with variance equal to the linear minimum mean-square error in estimating (X) from ((Y,hat Ħ)) . We demonstrate that, using a rate-splitting approach, this lower bound can be sharpened: by expressing the Gaussian input (X) as the sum of two independent Gaussian variables (X_1) and (X_2) and by applying Médard's lower bound first to bound the mutual information between (X_1) and (Y) while treating (X_2) as noise, and by applying it a second time to the mutual information between (X_2) and (Y) while assuming (X_1) to be known, we obtain a capacity lower bound that is strictly larger than Médard's lower bound. We then generalize this approach to an arbi- rary number (L) of layers, where (X) is expressed as the sum of (L) independent Gaussian random variables of respective variances (P_ell ) , (ell = 1,dotsc ,L) summing up to (P) . Among all such rate-splitting bounds, we determine the supremum over power allocations (P_ell ) and total number of layers (L) . This supremum is achieved for (L rightarrow infty ) and gives rise to an analytically expressible capacity lower bound. For Gaussian fading, this novel bound is shown to converge to the Gaussian-input mutual information as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) grows, provided that the variance of the channel estimation error (H-hat Ħ) tends to zero as the SNR tends to infinity. |

## Inproceedings |

Koch, Tobias On the Dither-Quantized Gaussian Channel at Low SNR Inproceedings 2014 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, pp. 186–190, IEEE, Honolulu, 2014, ISBN: 978-1-4799-5186-4. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Additive noise, channel capacity, dither quantized Gaussian channel, Entropy, Gaussian channels, low signal-to-noise-ratio, low-SNR asymptotic capacity, peak power constraint, peak-and-average-power-limited Gaussian channel, Quantization (signal), Signal to noise ratio @inproceedings{Koch2014, title = {On the Dither-Quantized Gaussian Channel at Low SNR}, author = {Tobias Koch}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6874820}, isbn = {978-1-4799-5186-4}, year = {2014}, date = {2014-01-01}, booktitle = {2014 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory}, pages = {186--190}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Honolulu}, abstract = {We study the capacity of the peak-and-average-power-limited Gaussian channel when its output is quantized using a dithered, infinite-level, uniform quantizer of step size $Delta$. We focus on the low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) regime, where communication at low spectral efficiencies takes place. We show that, when the peak-power constraint is absent, the low-SNR asymptotic capacity is equal to that of the unquantized channel irrespective of $Delta$. We further derive an expression for the low-SNR asymptotic capacity for finite peak-to-average-power ratios and evaluate it in the low- and high-resolution limit. We demonstrate that, in this case, the low-SNR asymptotic capacity converges to that of the unquantized channel when $Delta$ tends to zero, and it tends to zero when $Delta$ tends to infinity.}, keywords = {Additive noise, channel capacity, dither quantized Gaussian channel, Entropy, Gaussian channels, low signal-to-noise-ratio, low-SNR asymptotic capacity, peak power constraint, peak-and-average-power-limited Gaussian channel, Quantization (signal), Signal to noise ratio}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } We study the capacity of the peak-and-average-power-limited Gaussian channel when its output is quantized using a dithered, infinite-level, uniform quantizer of step size $Delta$. We focus on the low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) regime, where communication at low spectral efficiencies takes place. We show that, when the peak-power constraint is absent, the low-SNR asymptotic capacity is equal to that of the unquantized channel irrespective of $Delta$. We further derive an expression for the low-SNR asymptotic capacity for finite peak-to-average-power ratios and evaluate it in the low- and high-resolution limit. We demonstrate that, in this case, the low-SNR asymptotic capacity converges to that of the unquantized channel when $Delta$ tends to zero, and it tends to zero when $Delta$ tends to infinity. |

Yang, Wei; Durisi, Giuseppe; Koch, Tobias; Polyanskiy, Yury Dispersion of Quasi-Static MIMO Fading Channels via Stokes' Theorem Inproceedings 2014 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, pp. 2072–2076, IEEE, Honolulu, 2014, ISBN: 978-1-4799-5186-4. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: channel capacity, differential form integration, Dispersion, Fading, fading channels, fading distribution, integration, Manifolds, Measurement, MIMO, MIMO communication, quasistatic MIMO fading channels dispersion, quasistatic multiple-input multiple-output fading, radio transmitters, Random variables, Stoke Theorem, transmitter @inproceedings{Yang2014b, title = {Dispersion of Quasi-Static MIMO Fading Channels via Stokes' Theorem}, author = {Wei Yang and Giuseppe Durisi and Tobias Koch and Yury Polyanskiy}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6875198}, isbn = {978-1-4799-5186-4}, year = {2014}, date = {2014-01-01}, booktitle = {2014 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory}, pages = {2072--2076}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Honolulu}, abstract = {This paper analyzes the channel dispersion of quasi-static multiple-input multiple-output fading channels with no channel state information at the transmitter. We show that the channel dispersion is zero under mild conditions on the fading distribution. The proof of our result is based on Stokes' theorem, which deals with the integration of differential forms on manifolds with boundary.}, keywords = {channel capacity, differential form integration, Dispersion, Fading, fading channels, fading distribution, integration, Manifolds, Measurement, MIMO, MIMO communication, quasistatic MIMO fading channels dispersion, quasistatic multiple-input multiple-output fading, radio transmitters, Random variables, Stoke Theorem, transmitter}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } This paper analyzes the channel dispersion of quasi-static multiple-input multiple-output fading channels with no channel state information at the transmitter. We show that the channel dispersion is zero under mild conditions on the fading distribution. The proof of our result is based on Stokes' theorem, which deals with the integration of differential forms on manifolds with boundary. |

## 2013 |

## Journal Articles |

Koch, Tobias; Lapidoth, Amos At Low SNR, Asymmetric Quantizers are Better Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 59 (9), pp. 5421–5445, 2013, ISSN: 0018-9448. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: 1-bit quantizer, asymmetric signaling constellation, asymmetric threshold quantizers, asymptotic power loss, Capacity per unit energy, channel capacity, discrete-time Gaussian channel, flash-signaling input distribution, Gaussian channel, Gaussian channels, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), quantisation (signal), quantization, Rayleigh channels, Rayleigh-fading channel, signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, spectral efficiency @article{Koch2013, title = {At Low SNR, Asymmetric Quantizers are Better}, author = {Tobias Koch and Amos Lapidoth}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6545291}, issn = {0018-9448}, year = {2013}, date = {2013-01-01}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Information Theory}, volume = {59}, number = {9}, pages = {5421--5445}, abstract = {We study the capacity of the discrete-time Gaussian channel when its output is quantized with a 1-bit quantizer. We focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, where communication at very low spectral efficiencies takes place. In this regime, a symmetric threshold quantizer is known to reduce channel capacity by a factor of 2/$pi$, i.e., to cause an asymptotic power loss of approximately 2 dB. Here, it is shown that this power loss can be avoided by using asymmetric threshold quantizers and asymmetric signaling constellations. To avoid this power loss, flash-signaling input distributions are essential. Consequently, 1-bit output quantization of the Gaussian channel reduces spectral efficiency. Threshold quantizers are not only asymptotically optimal: at every fixed SNR, a threshold quantizer maximizes capacity among all 1-bit output quantizers. The picture changes on the Rayleigh-fading channel. In the noncoherent case, a 1-bit output quantizer causes an unavoidable low-SNR asymptotic power loss. In the coherent case, however, this power loss is avoidable provided that we allow the quantizer to depend on the fading level.}, keywords = {1-bit quantizer, asymmetric signaling constellation, asymmetric threshold quantizers, asymptotic power loss, Capacity per unit energy, channel capacity, discrete-time Gaussian channel, flash-signaling input distribution, Gaussian channel, Gaussian channels, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), quantisation (signal), quantization, Rayleigh channels, Rayleigh-fading channel, signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, spectral efficiency}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } We study the capacity of the discrete-time Gaussian channel when its output is quantized with a 1-bit quantizer. We focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, where communication at very low spectral efficiencies takes place. In this regime, a symmetric threshold quantizer is known to reduce channel capacity by a factor of 2/$pi$, i.e., to cause an asymptotic power loss of approximately 2 dB. Here, it is shown that this power loss can be avoided by using asymmetric threshold quantizers and asymmetric signaling constellations. To avoid this power loss, flash-signaling input distributions are essential. Consequently, 1-bit output quantization of the Gaussian channel reduces spectral efficiency. Threshold quantizers are not only asymptotically optimal: at every fixed SNR, a threshold quantizer maximizes capacity among all 1-bit output quantizers. The picture changes on the Rayleigh-fading channel. In the noncoherent case, a 1-bit output quantizer causes an unavoidable low-SNR asymptotic power loss. In the coherent case, however, this power loss is avoidable provided that we allow the quantizer to depend on the fading level. |

Bravo-Santos, Ángel M Polar Codes for Gaussian Degraded Relay Channels Journal Article IEEE Communications Letters, 17 (2), pp. 365–368, 2013, ISSN: 1089-7798. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: channel capacity, Channel Coding, Decoding, Encoding, Gaussian channels, Gaussian degraded relay channel, Gaussian noise, Gaussian-degraded relay channels, log-likelihood expression, Markov coding, Noise, parity check codes, polar code detector, polar codes, relay-destination link, Relays, Vectors @article{Bravo-Santos2013, title = {Polar Codes for Gaussian Degraded Relay Channels}, author = {Ángel M Bravo-Santos}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6412681}, issn = {1089-7798}, year = {2013}, date = {2013-01-01}, journal = {IEEE Communications Letters}, volume = {17}, number = {2}, pages = {365--368}, publisher = {IEEE}, abstract = {In this paper we apply polar codes for the Gaussian degraded relay channel. We study the conditions to be satisfied by the codes and provide an efficient method for constructing them. The relay-destination link is special because the noise is the sum of two components: the Gaussian noise and the signals from the source. We study this link and provide the log-likelihood expression to be used by the polar code detector. We perform simulations of the channel and the results show that polar codes of high rate and large codeword length are closer to the theoretical limit than other good codes.}, keywords = {channel capacity, Channel Coding, Decoding, Encoding, Gaussian channels, Gaussian degraded relay channel, Gaussian noise, Gaussian-degraded relay channels, log-likelihood expression, Markov coding, Noise, parity check codes, polar code detector, polar codes, relay-destination link, Relays, Vectors}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } In this paper we apply polar codes for the Gaussian degraded relay channel. We study the conditions to be satisfied by the codes and provide an efficient method for constructing them. The relay-destination link is special because the noise is the sum of two components: the Gaussian noise and the signals from the source. We study this link and provide the log-likelihood expression to be used by the polar code detector. We perform simulations of the channel and the results show that polar codes of high rate and large codeword length are closer to the theoretical limit than other good codes. |

Koch, Tobias; Kramer, Gerhard On Noncoherent Fading Relay Channels at High Signal-to-Noise Ratio Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 59 (4), pp. 2221–2241, 2013, ISSN: 0018-9448. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: channel capacity, Channel models, Fading, fading channels, MIMO communication, multiple-input single-output fading channel statis, noncoherent, noncoherent fading relay channel capacity, radio receiver, radio receivers, radio transmitter, radio transmitters, Receivers, relay channels, relay networks (telecommunication), Relays, Signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, statistics, time selective, Transmitters, Upper bound @article{Koch2013a, title = {On Noncoherent Fading Relay Channels at High Signal-to-Noise Ratio}, author = {Tobias Koch and Gerhard Kramer}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6378474}, issn = {0018-9448}, year = {2013}, date = {2013-01-01}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Information Theory}, volume = {59}, number = {4}, pages = {2221--2241}, abstract = {The capacity of noncoherent regular-fading relay channels is studied where all terminals are aware of the fading statistics but not of their realizations. It is shown that if the fading coefficient of the channel between the transmitter and the receiver can be predicted more accurately from its infinite past than the fading coefficient of the channel between the relay and the receiver, then at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the relay does not increase capacity. It is further shown that if the fading coefficient of the channel between the transmitter and the relay can be predicted more accurately from its infinite past than the fading coefficient of the channel between the relay and the receiver, then at high SNR, one can achieve communication rates that are within one bit of the capacity of the multiple-input single-output fading channel that results when the transmitter and the relay can cooperate.}, keywords = {channel capacity, Channel models, Fading, fading channels, MIMO communication, multiple-input single-output fading channel statis, noncoherent, noncoherent fading relay channel capacity, radio receiver, radio receivers, radio transmitter, radio transmitters, Receivers, relay channels, relay networks (telecommunication), Relays, Signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, statistics, time selective, Transmitters, Upper bound}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } The capacity of noncoherent regular-fading relay channels is studied where all terminals are aware of the fading statistics but not of their realizations. It is shown that if the fading coefficient of the channel between the transmitter and the receiver can be predicted more accurately from its infinite past than the fading coefficient of the channel between the relay and the receiver, then at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the relay does not increase capacity. It is further shown that if the fading coefficient of the channel between the transmitter and the relay can be predicted more accurately from its infinite past than the fading coefficient of the channel between the relay and the receiver, then at high SNR, one can achieve communication rates that are within one bit of the capacity of the multiple-input single-output fading channel that results when the transmitter and the relay can cooperate. |

## Inproceedings |

Yang, Wei; Durisi, Giuseppe; Koch, Tobias; Polyanskiy, Yury Quasi-Static SIMO Fading Channels at Finite Blocklength Inproceedings 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, pp. 1531–1535, IEEE, Istanbul, 2013, ISSN: 2157-8095. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: achievability bounds, AWGN channel, AWGN channels, channel capacity, channel dispersion, channel gains, Dispersion, error probability, error statistics, Fading, fading channels, fading realizations, fast convergence, finite blocklength, maximal achievable rate, numerical evaluation, outage capacity, quasistatic SIMO fading channels, Random variables, Receivers, SIMO Rician channel, single-input multiple-output, Transmitters, zero dispersion @inproceedings{Yang2013a, title = {Quasi-Static SIMO Fading Channels at Finite Blocklength}, author = {Wei Yang and Giuseppe Durisi and Tobias Koch and Yury Polyanskiy}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6620483}, issn = {2157-8095}, year = {2013}, date = {2013-01-01}, booktitle = {2013 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory}, pages = {1531--1535}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Istanbul}, abstract = {We investigate the maximal achievable rate for a given blocklength and error probability over quasi-static single-input multiple-output (SIMO) fading channels. Under mild conditions on the channel gains, it is shown that the channel dispersion is zero regardless of whether the fading realizations are available at the transmitter and/or the receiver. The result follows from computationally and analytically tractable converse and achievability bounds. Through numerical evaluation, we verify that, in some scenarios, zero dispersion indeed entails fast convergence to outage capacity as the blocklength increases. In the example of a particular 1×2 SIMO Rician channel, the blocklength required to achieve 90% of capacity is about an order of magnitude smaller compared to the blocklength required for an AWGN channel with the same capacity.}, keywords = {achievability bounds, AWGN channel, AWGN channels, channel capacity, channel dispersion, channel gains, Dispersion, error probability, error statistics, Fading, fading channels, fading realizations, fast convergence, finite blocklength, maximal achievable rate, numerical evaluation, outage capacity, quasistatic SIMO fading channels, Random variables, Receivers, SIMO Rician channel, single-input multiple-output, Transmitters, zero dispersion}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } We investigate the maximal achievable rate for a given blocklength and error probability over quasi-static single-input multiple-output (SIMO) fading channels. Under mild conditions on the channel gains, it is shown that the channel dispersion is zero regardless of whether the fading realizations are available at the transmitter and/or the receiver. The result follows from computationally and analytically tractable converse and achievability bounds. Through numerical evaluation, we verify that, in some scenarios, zero dispersion indeed entails fast convergence to outage capacity as the blocklength increases. In the example of a particular 1×2 SIMO Rician channel, the blocklength required to achieve 90% of capacity is about an order of magnitude smaller compared to the blocklength required for an AWGN channel with the same capacity. |

## 2012 |

## Journal Articles |

Olmos, Pablo M; Salamanca, Luis; Murillo-Fuentes, Juan Jose; Perez-Cruz, Fernando On the Design of LDPC-Convolutional Ensembles Using the TEP Decoder Journal Article IEEE Communications Letters, 16 (5), pp. 726–729, 2012, ISSN: 1089-7798. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: belief propagation decoding, binary erasure channel, channel capacity, Complexity theory, convolutional codes, convolutional LDPC codes, Decoding, design, Error analysis, finite-length analysis, Iterative decoding, LDPC-convolutional ensemble design, LDPCC code decoding, low-density parity-check convolutional code, parity check codes, tree-expectation propagation decoder, tree-structured expectation propagation, window-sliding scheme @article{Olmos2012b, title = {On the Design of LDPC-Convolutional Ensembles Using the TEP Decoder}, author = {Pablo M Olmos and Luis Salamanca and Juan Jose Murillo-Fuentes and Fernando Perez-Cruz}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6168872}, issn = {1089-7798}, year = {2012}, date = {2012-01-01}, journal = {IEEE Communications Letters}, volume = {16}, number = {5}, pages = {726--729}, abstract = {Low-density parity-check convolutional (LDPCC) codes asymptotically achieve channel capacity under belief propagation (BP) decoding. In this paper, we decode LDPCC codes using the Tree-Expectation Propagation (TEP) decoder, recently proposed as an alternative decoding method to the BP algorithm for the binary erasure channel (BEC). We show that, for LDPCC codes, the TEP decoder improves the BP solution with a comparable complexity or, alternatively, it allows using shorter codes to achieve similar error rates. We also propose a window-sliding scheme for the TEP decoder to reduce the decoding latency.}, keywords = {belief propagation decoding, binary erasure channel, channel capacity, Complexity theory, convolutional codes, convolutional LDPC codes, Decoding, design, Error analysis, finite-length analysis, Iterative decoding, LDPC-convolutional ensemble design, LDPCC code decoding, low-density parity-check convolutional code, parity check codes, tree-expectation propagation decoder, tree-structured expectation propagation, window-sliding scheme}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } Low-density parity-check convolutional (LDPCC) codes asymptotically achieve channel capacity under belief propagation (BP) decoding. In this paper, we decode LDPCC codes using the Tree-Expectation Propagation (TEP) decoder, recently proposed as an alternative decoding method to the BP algorithm for the binary erasure channel (BEC). We show that, for LDPCC codes, the TEP decoder improves the BP solution with a comparable complexity or, alternatively, it allows using shorter codes to achieve similar error rates. We also propose a window-sliding scheme for the TEP decoder to reduce the decoding latency. |

## Inproceedings |

Koch, Tobias; Martinez, Alfonso; i Fabregas, Albert Guillen The Capacity Loss of Dense Constellations Inproceedings 2012 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory Proceedings, pp. 572–576, IEEE, Cambridge, MA, 2012, ISSN: 2157-8095. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: capacity loss, channel capacity, Constellation diagram, dense constellations, Entropy, general complex-valued additive-noise channels, high signal-to-noise ratio, loss 1.53 dB, power loss, Quadrature amplitude modulation, Random variables, signal constellations, Signal processing, Signal to noise ratio, square signal constellations, Upper bound @inproceedings{Koch2012, title = {The Capacity Loss of Dense Constellations}, author = {Tobias Koch and Alfonso Martinez and Albert Guillen i Fabregas}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6283482}, issn = {2157-8095}, year = {2012}, date = {2012-01-01}, booktitle = {2012 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory Proceedings}, pages = {572--576}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Cambridge, MA}, abstract = {We determine the loss in capacity incurred by using signal constellations with a bounded support over general complex-valued additive-noise channels for suitably high signal-to-noise ratio. Our expression for the capacity loss recovers the power loss of 1.53 dB for square signal constellations.}, keywords = {capacity loss, channel capacity, Constellation diagram, dense constellations, Entropy, general complex-valued additive-noise channels, high signal-to-noise ratio, loss 1.53 dB, power loss, Quadrature amplitude modulation, Random variables, signal constellations, Signal processing, Signal to noise ratio, square signal constellations, Upper bound}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } We determine the loss in capacity incurred by using signal constellations with a bounded support over general complex-valued additive-noise channels for suitably high signal-to-noise ratio. Our expression for the capacity loss recovers the power loss of 1.53 dB for square signal constellations. |

Pastore, Adriano; Koch, Tobias; Fonollosa, Javier Rodriguez Improved Capacity Lower Bounds for Fading Channels with Imperfect CSI Using Rate Splitting Inproceedings 2012 IEEE 27th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel, pp. 1–5, IEEE, Eilat, 2012, ISBN: 978-1-4673-4681-8. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: channel capacity, channel capacity lower bounds, conditional entropy, Decoding, Entropy, Fading, fading channels, Gaussian channel, Gaussian channels, Gaussian random variable, imperfect channel-state information, imperfect CSI, independent Gaussian variables, linear minimum mean-square error, mean square error methods, Medard lower bound, Mutual information, Random variables, rate splitting approach, Resource management, Upper bound, wireless communications @inproceedings{Pastore2012, title = {Improved Capacity Lower Bounds for Fading Channels with Imperfect CSI Using Rate Splitting}, author = {Adriano Pastore and Tobias Koch and Javier Rodriguez Fonollosa}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6377031}, isbn = {978-1-4673-4681-8}, year = {2012}, date = {2012-01-01}, booktitle = {2012 IEEE 27th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel}, pages = {1--5}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Eilat}, abstract = {As shown by Medard (“The effect upon channel capacity in wireless communications of perfect and imperfect knowledge of the channel,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, May 2000), the capacity of fading channels with imperfect channel-state information (CSI) can be lower-bounded by assuming a Gaussian channel input X, and by upper-bounding the conditional entropy h(XY, Ĥ), conditioned on the channel output Y and the CSI Ĥ, by the entropy of a Gaussian random variable with variance equal to the linear minimum mean-square error in estimating X from (Y, Ĥ). We demonstrate that, by using a rate-splitting approach, this lower bound can be sharpened: we show that by expressing the Gaussian input X as as the sum of two independent Gaussian variables X(1) and X(2), and by applying Medard's lower bound first to analyze the mutual information between X(1) and Y conditioned on Ĥ while treating X(2) as noise, and by applying the lower bound then to analyze the mutual information between X(2) and Y conditioned on (X(1), Ĥ), we obtain a lower bound on the capacity that is larger than Medard's lower bound.}, keywords = {channel capacity, channel capacity lower bounds, conditional entropy, Decoding, Entropy, Fading, fading channels, Gaussian channel, Gaussian channels, Gaussian random variable, imperfect channel-state information, imperfect CSI, independent Gaussian variables, linear minimum mean-square error, mean square error methods, Medard lower bound, Mutual information, Random variables, rate splitting approach, Resource management, Upper bound, wireless communications}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } As shown by Medard (“The effect upon channel capacity in wireless communications of perfect and imperfect knowledge of the channel,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, May 2000), the capacity of fading channels with imperfect channel-state information (CSI) can be lower-bounded by assuming a Gaussian channel input X, and by upper-bounding the conditional entropy h(XY, Ĥ), conditioned on the channel output Y and the CSI Ĥ, by the entropy of a Gaussian random variable with variance equal to the linear minimum mean-square error in estimating X from (Y, Ĥ). We demonstrate that, by using a rate-splitting approach, this lower bound can be sharpened: we show that by expressing the Gaussian input X as as the sum of two independent Gaussian variables X(1) and X(2), and by applying Medard's lower bound first to analyze the mutual information between X(1) and Y conditioned on Ĥ while treating X(2) as noise, and by applying the lower bound then to analyze the mutual information between X(2) and Y conditioned on (X(1), Ĥ), we obtain a lower bound on the capacity that is larger than Medard's lower bound. |

## 2011 |

## Inproceedings |

Ruiz, Francisco J R; Perez-Cruz, Fernando Zero-Error Codes for the Noisy-Typewriter Channel Inproceedings 2011 IEEE Information Theory Workshop, pp. 495–497, IEEE, Paraty, 2011, ISBN: 978-1-4577-0437-6. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: channel capacity, Channel Coding, Equations, Linear code, Noise measurement, noisy-typewriter channel, nontrivial codes, nonzero zero-error rate, odd-letter noisy-typewriter channels, Upper bound, Vectors, zero-error capacity, zero-error codes @inproceedings{Ruiz2011, title = {Zero-Error Codes for the Noisy-Typewriter Channel}, author = {Francisco J R Ruiz and Fernando Perez-Cruz}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6089510}, isbn = {978-1-4577-0437-6}, year = {2011}, date = {2011-01-01}, booktitle = {2011 IEEE Information Theory Workshop}, pages = {495--497}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Paraty}, abstract = {In this paper, we propose nontrivial codes that achieve a non-zero zero-error rate for several odd-letter noisy-typewriter channels. Some of these codes (specifically, those which are defined for a number of letters of the channel of the form 2n + 1) achieve the best-known lower bound on the zero-error capacity. We build the codes using linear codes over rings, as we do not require the multiplicative inverse to build the codes.}, keywords = {channel capacity, Channel Coding, Equations, Linear code, Noise measurement, noisy-typewriter channel, nontrivial codes, nonzero zero-error rate, odd-letter noisy-typewriter channels, Upper bound, Vectors, zero-error capacity, zero-error codes}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } In this paper, we propose nontrivial codes that achieve a non-zero zero-error rate for several odd-letter noisy-typewriter channels. Some of these codes (specifically, those which are defined for a number of letters of the channel of the form 2n + 1) achieve the best-known lower bound on the zero-error capacity. We build the codes using linear codes over rings, as we do not require the multiplicative inverse to build the codes. |

Koch, Tobias; Lapidoth, Amos Asymmetric Quantizers are Better at Low SNR Inproceedings 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory Proceedings, pp. 2592–2596, IEEE, St. Petersburg, 2011, ISSN: 2157-8095. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: asymmetric one-bit quantizer, asymmetric signal constellations, channel capacity, Channel Coding, Constellation diagram, Decoding, discrete-time average-power-limited Gaussian chann, Gaussian channels, quantization, Signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, spread spectrum communication, spread-spectrum communications, ultra wideband communication, ultrawideband communications, Upper bound @inproceedings{Koch2011, title = {Asymmetric Quantizers are Better at Low SNR}, author = {Tobias Koch and Amos Lapidoth}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6034037}, issn = {2157-8095}, year = {2011}, date = {2011-01-01}, booktitle = {2011 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory Proceedings}, pages = {2592--2596}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {St. Petersburg}, abstract = {We study the behavior of channel capacity when a one-bit quantizer is employed at the output of the discrete-time average-power-limited Gaussian channel. We focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio regime, where communication at very low spectral efficiencies takes place, as in Spread-Spectrum and Ultra-Wideband communications. It is well known that, in this regime, a symmetric one-bit quantizer reduces capacity by 2/$pi$, which translates to a power loss of approximately two decibels. Here we show that if an asymmetric one-bit quantizer is employed, and if asymmetric signal constellations are used, then these two decibels can be recovered in full.}, keywords = {asymmetric one-bit quantizer, asymmetric signal constellations, channel capacity, Channel Coding, Constellation diagram, Decoding, discrete-time average-power-limited Gaussian chann, Gaussian channels, quantization, Signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, spread spectrum communication, spread-spectrum communications, ultra wideband communication, ultrawideband communications, Upper bound}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } We study the behavior of channel capacity when a one-bit quantizer is employed at the output of the discrete-time average-power-limited Gaussian channel. We focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio regime, where communication at very low spectral efficiencies takes place, as in Spread-Spectrum and Ultra-Wideband communications. It is well known that, in this regime, a symmetric one-bit quantizer reduces capacity by 2/$pi$, which translates to a power loss of approximately two decibels. Here we show that if an asymmetric one-bit quantizer is employed, and if asymmetric signal constellations are used, then these two decibels can be recovered in full. |

## 2010 |

## Journal Articles |

Koch, Tobias; Lapidoth, Amos Gaussian Fading Is the Worst Fading Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 56 (3), pp. 1158–1165, 2010, ISSN: 0018-9448. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Additive noise, channel capacity, channels with memory, Distribution functions, ergodic fading processes, Fading, fading channels, flat fading, flat-fading channel capacity, Gaussian channels, Gaussian fading, Gaussian processes, H infinity control, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), Information technology, information theory, multiple-input single-output fading channels, multiplexing gain, noncoherent, noncoherent channel capacity, peak-power limited channel capacity, Signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, single-antenna channel capacity, spectral distribution function, time-selective, Transmitters @article{Koch2010a, title = {Gaussian Fading Is the Worst Fading}, author = {Tobias Koch and Amos Lapidoth}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=5429105}, issn = {0018-9448}, year = {2010}, date = {2010-01-01}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Information Theory}, volume = {56}, number = {3}, pages = {1158--1165}, abstract = {The capacity of peak-power limited, single-antenna, noncoherent, flat-fading channels with memory is considered. The emphasis is on the capacity pre-log, i.e., on the limiting ratio of channel capacity to the logarithm of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), as the SNR tends to infinity. It is shown that, among all stationary and ergodic fading processes of a given spectral distribution function and whose law has no mass point at zero, the Gaussian process gives rise to the smallest pre-log. The assumption that the law of the fading process has no mass point at zero is essential in the sense that there exist stationary and ergodic fading processes whose law has a mass point at zero and that give rise to a smaller pre-log than the Gaussian process of equal spectral distribution function. An extension of these results to multiple-input single-output (MISO) fading channels with memory is also presented.}, keywords = {Additive noise, channel capacity, channels with memory, Distribution functions, ergodic fading processes, Fading, fading channels, flat fading, flat-fading channel capacity, Gaussian channels, Gaussian fading, Gaussian processes, H infinity control, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), Information technology, information theory, multiple-input single-output fading channels, multiplexing gain, noncoherent, noncoherent channel capacity, peak-power limited channel capacity, Signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, single-antenna channel capacity, spectral distribution function, time-selective, Transmitters}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } The capacity of peak-power limited, single-antenna, noncoherent, flat-fading channels with memory is considered. The emphasis is on the capacity pre-log, i.e., on the limiting ratio of channel capacity to the logarithm of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), as the SNR tends to infinity. It is shown that, among all stationary and ergodic fading processes of a given spectral distribution function and whose law has no mass point at zero, the Gaussian process gives rise to the smallest pre-log. The assumption that the law of the fading process has no mass point at zero is essential in the sense that there exist stationary and ergodic fading processes whose law has a mass point at zero and that give rise to a smaller pre-log than the Gaussian process of equal spectral distribution function. An extension of these results to multiple-input single-output (MISO) fading channels with memory is also presented. |

Koch, Tobias; Lapidoth, Amos On Multipath Fading Channels at High SNR Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 56 (12), pp. 5945–5957, 2010, ISSN: 0018-9448. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: approximation theory, capacity pre-loglog, capacity to loglog, channel capacity, channels with memory, Delay, Fading, fading channels, frequency-selective fading, high signal-to-noise ratio, high SNR, Limiting, multipath, multipath channels, noncoherent, noncoherent multipath fading channel, Receivers, Signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, Transmitters @article{Koch2010b, title = {On Multipath Fading Channels at High SNR}, author = {Tobias Koch and Amos Lapidoth}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=5625630}, issn = {0018-9448}, year = {2010}, date = {2010-01-01}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Information Theory}, volume = {56}, number = {12}, pages = {5945--5957}, abstract = {A noncoherent multipath fading channel is considered, where neither the transmitter nor the receiver is cognizant of the realization of the path gains, but both are cognizant of their statistics. It is shown that if the delay spread is large in the sense that the variances of the path gains decay exponentially or slower, then capacity is bounded in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For such channels, capacity does not tend to infinity as the SNR tends to infinity. In contrast, if the variances of the path gains decay faster than exponentially, then capacity is unbounded in the SNR. It is further demonstrated that if the number of paths is finite, then at high SNR capacity grows double-logarithmically with the SNR, and the capacity pre-loglog-defined as the limiting ratio of capacity to loglog(SNR) as the SNR tends to infinity-is 1 irrespective of the number of paths. The results demonstrate that at high SNR multipath fading channels with an infinite number of paths cannot be approximated by multipath fading channels with only a finite number of paths. The number of paths that are needed to approximate a multipath fading channel typically depends on the SNR and may grow to infinity as the SNR tends to infinity.}, keywords = {approximation theory, capacity pre-loglog, capacity to loglog, channel capacity, channels with memory, Delay, Fading, fading channels, frequency-selective fading, high signal-to-noise ratio, high SNR, Limiting, multipath, multipath channels, noncoherent, noncoherent multipath fading channel, Receivers, Signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, Transmitters}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } A noncoherent multipath fading channel is considered, where neither the transmitter nor the receiver is cognizant of the realization of the path gains, but both are cognizant of their statistics. It is shown that if the delay spread is large in the sense that the variances of the path gains decay exponentially or slower, then capacity is bounded in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For such channels, capacity does not tend to infinity as the SNR tends to infinity. In contrast, if the variances of the path gains decay faster than exponentially, then capacity is unbounded in the SNR. It is further demonstrated that if the number of paths is finite, then at high SNR capacity grows double-logarithmically with the SNR, and the capacity pre-loglog-defined as the limiting ratio of capacity to loglog(SNR) as the SNR tends to infinity-is 1 irrespective of the number of paths. The results demonstrate that at high SNR multipath fading channels with an infinite number of paths cannot be approximated by multipath fading channels with only a finite number of paths. The number of paths that are needed to approximate a multipath fading channel typically depends on the SNR and may grow to infinity as the SNR tends to infinity. |

## Inproceedings |

Koch, Tobias; Lapidoth, Amos Increased Capacity per Unit-Cost by Oversampling Inproceedings 2010 IEEE 26-th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel, pp. 000684–000688, IEEE, Eliat, 2010, ISBN: 978-1-4244-8681-6. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: AWGN, AWGN channels, bandlimited Gaussian channel, channel capacity, Gaussian channels, increased capacity per unit cost, Information rates, one bit output quantizer, oversampling, quantisation (signal), quantization, sampling rate recovery, signal sampling @inproceedings{Koch2010, title = {Increased Capacity per Unit-Cost by Oversampling}, author = {Tobias Koch and Amos Lapidoth}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=5662127}, isbn = {978-1-4244-8681-6}, year = {2010}, date = {2010-01-01}, booktitle = {2010 IEEE 26-th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel}, pages = {000684--000688}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Eliat}, abstract = {It is demonstrated that doubling the sampling rate recovers some of the loss in capacity incurred on the bandlimited Gaussian channel with a one-bit output quantizer.}, keywords = {AWGN, AWGN channels, bandlimited Gaussian channel, channel capacity, Gaussian channels, increased capacity per unit cost, Information rates, one bit output quantizer, oversampling, quantisation (signal), quantization, sampling rate recovery, signal sampling}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } It is demonstrated that doubling the sampling rate recovers some of the loss in capacity incurred on the bandlimited Gaussian channel with a one-bit output quantizer. |

## 2009 |

## Journal Articles |

Koch, Tobias; Lapidoth, Amos; Sotiriadis, Paul P Channels That Heat Up Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 55 (8), pp. 3594–3612, 2009, ISSN: 0018-9448. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: additive noise channel, Capacity per unit cost, channel capacity, channels with memory, cooling, electronic circuits, heat dissipation, heat sinks, high signal-to-noise ratio, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), intrinsic thermal noise, low transmit power, network analysis, noise variance, on-chip communication, thermal noise @article{Koch2009, title = {Channels That Heat Up}, author = {Tobias Koch and Amos Lapidoth and Paul P Sotiriadis}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=5165190}, issn = {0018-9448}, year = {2009}, date = {2009-01-01}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Information Theory}, volume = {55}, number = {8}, pages = {3594--3612}, abstract = {This paper considers an additive noise channel where the time-A; noise variance is a weighted sum of the squared magnitudes of the previous channel inputs plus a constant. This channel model accounts for the dependence of the intrinsic thermal noise on the data due to the heat dissipation associated with the transmission of data in electronic circuits: the data determine the transmitted signal, which in turn heats up the circuit and thus influences the power of the thermal noise. The capacity of this channel (both with and without feedback) is studied at low transmit powers and at high transmit powers. At low transmit powers, the slope of the capacity-versus-power curve at zero is computed and it is shown that the heating-up effect is beneficial. At high transmit powers, conditions are determined under which the capacity is bounded, i.e., under which the capacity does not grow to infinity as the allowed average power tends to infinity.}, keywords = {additive noise channel, Capacity per unit cost, channel capacity, channels with memory, cooling, electronic circuits, heat dissipation, heat sinks, high signal-to-noise ratio, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), intrinsic thermal noise, low transmit power, network analysis, noise variance, on-chip communication, thermal noise}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } This paper considers an additive noise channel where the time-A; noise variance is a weighted sum of the squared magnitudes of the previous channel inputs plus a constant. This channel model accounts for the dependence of the intrinsic thermal noise on the data due to the heat dissipation associated with the transmission of data in electronic circuits: the data determine the transmitted signal, which in turn heats up the circuit and thus influences the power of the thermal noise. The capacity of this channel (both with and without feedback) is studied at low transmit powers and at high transmit powers. At low transmit powers, the slope of the capacity-versus-power curve at zero is computed and it is shown that the heating-up effect is beneficial. At high transmit powers, conditions are determined under which the capacity is bounded, i.e., under which the capacity does not grow to infinity as the allowed average power tends to infinity. |

## 2008 |

## Inproceedings |

Koch, Tobias; Lapidoth, Amos On Multipath Fading Channels at High SNR Inproceedings 2008 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, pp. 1572–1576, IEEE, Toronto, 2008, ISBN: 978-1-4244-2256-2. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: channel capacity, Delay, discrete time systems, discrete-time channels, Entropy, Fading, fading channels, Frequency, Mathematical model, multipath channels, multipath fading channels, noncoherent channel model, Random variables, Signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratios, SNR, statistics, Transmitters @inproceedings{Koch2008, title = {On Multipath Fading Channels at High SNR}, author = {Tobias Koch and Amos Lapidoth}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=4595252}, isbn = {978-1-4244-2256-2}, year = {2008}, date = {2008-01-01}, booktitle = {2008 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory}, pages = {1572--1576}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Toronto}, abstract = {This paper studies the capacity of discrete-time multipath fading channels. It is assumed that the number of paths is finite, i.e., that the channel output is influenced by the present and by the L previous channel inputs. A noncoherent channel model is considered where neither transmitter nor receiver are cognizant of the fading's realization, but both are aware of its statistic. The focus is on capacity at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). In particular, the capacity pre-loglog-defined as the limiting ratio of the capacity to loglog(SNR) as SNR tends to infinity-is studied. It is shown that, irrespective of the number of paths L, the capacity pre-loglog is 1.}, keywords = {channel capacity, Delay, discrete time systems, discrete-time channels, Entropy, Fading, fading channels, Frequency, Mathematical model, multipath channels, multipath fading channels, noncoherent channel model, Random variables, Signal to noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratios, SNR, statistics, Transmitters}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } This paper studies the capacity of discrete-time multipath fading channels. It is assumed that the number of paths is finite, i.e., that the channel output is influenced by the present and by the L previous channel inputs. A noncoherent channel model is considered where neither transmitter nor receiver are cognizant of the fading's realization, but both are aware of its statistic. The focus is on capacity at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). In particular, the capacity pre-loglog-defined as the limiting ratio of the capacity to loglog(SNR) as SNR tends to infinity-is studied. It is shown that, irrespective of the number of paths L, the capacity pre-loglog is 1. |

Koch, Tobias; Lapidoth, Amos Multipath Channels of Unbounded Capacity Inproceedings 2008 IEEE 25th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel, pp. 640–644, IEEE, Eilat, 2008, ISBN: 978-1-4244-2481-8. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: channel capacity, discrete-time capacity, Entropy, Fading, fading channels, Frequency, H infinity control, Information rates, multipath channels, multipath fading channels, noncoherent, noncoherent capacity, path gains decay, Signal to noise ratio, statistics, Transmitters, unbounded capacity @inproceedings{Koch2008b, title = {Multipath Channels of Unbounded Capacity}, author = {Tobias Koch and Amos Lapidoth}, url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=4736611}, isbn = {978-1-4244-2481-8}, year = {2008}, date = {2008-01-01}, booktitle = {2008 IEEE 25th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel}, pages = {640--644}, publisher = {IEEE}, address = {Eilat}, abstract = {The capacity of discrete-time, noncoherent, multipath fading channels is considered. It is shown that if the variances of the path gains decay faster than exponentially, then capacity is unbounded in the transmit power.}, keywords = {channel capacity, discrete-time capacity, Entropy, Fading, fading channels, Frequency, H infinity control, Information rates, multipath channels, multipath fading channels, noncoherent, noncoherent capacity, path gains decay, Signal to noise ratio, statistics, Transmitters, unbounded capacity}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {inproceedings} } The capacity of discrete-time, noncoherent, multipath fading channels is considered. It is shown that if the variances of the path gains decay faster than exponentially, then capacity is unbounded in the transmit power. |